The Critical Factor In Deindividuation Is _____.

the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1. In order to stop experimental subjects from trying to confirm the scientist’s hypothesis, psychologist sometimes _____.”
obtain written promises from participants to be honest
maintain subject confidentiality
——> deceive participants about the true purpose of the experiment
allow people to chose when they want to leave the study
3
2. Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct?
There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals.
There are rules that prevent the killing of animals.
——> Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary.
New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
3. A correlation coefficient represents two things: _____ and _____.
a representative sample; strength
——> strength; direction of the relationship
the experimental group; control group
direction of the relationship; expectant functionality
2
4. A correlation coefficient shows that smoking and life expectancy are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____ if the direction of the relationship is known.
if a person smokes a lot of cigarettes, he or she will have less money monthly to buy gas
——> the person’s life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the person smokes daily
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
if a person smokes cigarettes, he or she will eventually develop lung cancer
a person’s lungs will repair themselves and he or she will live a longer life
2
5. The word correlation is often used as a synonym for _____.
validity
reliability
variable
——> relationship
4
6. A psychologist uses the correlational method to _____.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
explain the effects of one variable on another
——> identify relationships between variables
determine what causes a variable to change
compare two groups of subjects
2
7. A correlation is a numerical measure of the _____.
unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues from the experimenter
——> strength of the relationship between two variables
behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time
behaviors of participants followed and periodically assessed over time
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
8. If psychologists find that rich people are less satisfied with their jobs compared to poor people, this would mean that wealth and job satisfaction are _____.
causally related
——> negatively correlated
independent variables
positively correlated
2
9. Dr. Wiseman wants to know about the alcohol consumption patterns among college juniors in the United States. He should _____.
give the survey to every college junior in the country
remember that sample size is the most critical factor in survey research
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
require students’ names on each survey to avoid the tendency to lie
——> draw a representative sample among college juniors
4
10. A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers’ responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used?
experiment, case study, survey
——> case study, survey, experiment
correlation, case study, experiment
naturalistic observation, survey, experiment
2
11. In a group of five people, two report annual incomes of $25,000 and the other three report incomes of $34,000, $46,000, and $105,000, respectively. The mode of this group’s distribution of incomes is _____.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> $25,000
$34,000
$46,000
$47,000
1
12. The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to _____.
apply the results to the entire U.S. population
apply the results to Costa Rica
——> apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American
apply the result to scientists
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
13. A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics?
The ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls.
——> The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis.
The math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students.
Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies.
2
14. Jane Goodall’s research with chimpanzees and gorillas can best be described as _____.
experimentation
a case study
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> naturalistic observation
participant observation
3
15. In an experiment to test the effects of anxiety on performance, the dependent variable is the _____.
amount of anxiety
age of the person
——> person’s performance
cause of the anxiety
3
16. In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is _____.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> the use of nicotine
the use of a driving simulator
the number of collisions
the driving skills of each driver
1
17. “If children watch violent cartoons then they will become more aggressive.” According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a _____.
conclusion
result
——> hypothesis
fact
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
18. _____ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data.
Statistics
——> The scientific method
Checks and balances
The double-blind method
2
19. After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist’s idea?
——> hypothesis
dependent variable
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
extraneous variable
experimental estimate
1
20. Sherri believes that she plays better soccer when she wears her lucky socks. Sherri is falling into a statistical trap called _____.
statistical significance
overconfidence
——> illusory correlation
hindsight bias
3
21. In a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable is called the _____ group.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
independent
——> experimental
dependent
control
2
22. Ideally, everything in the experimental situation except the _____ is held constant.
inferential statistics
placebos
——> independent variables
hypotheses
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
23. A psychologist wanted to see if people are more prone to seek the company of others when anxious than when calm. He randomly assigned half of his subjects to an anxiety group and then told then that as part of the study, they would receive electric shocks. He did not frighten the other group of subjects. Finally, he recorded how many subjects in each group chose to be “tested” in a group setting and how many chose to be “tested” alone. In this study, the group that was NOT frightened would be called the _____ group.
experimental
——> control
placebo
test
2
24. Sandy Sue was participating in an experiment in which she was given a pill that was supposed to cause her to get drowsy. Five minutes after taking the pill, Sandy Sue reported that she felt drowsy and wanted to lie down. The pill was actually made of sugar and had no ingredients to cause drowsiness. How do you explain Sandy Sue’s drowsy feeling?
experimenter effect
——> placebo effect
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
subject bias
treatment effect
2
25. You are at a basketball game and the arena is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. The event reminds you of the topic of today’s lecture in psychology class. What was the likely topic of the lecture?
——> bias
experiments
psychoanalysis
extraneous variables
1
26. If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the _____ perspective.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
behavioral
——> sociocultural
psychodynamic
cognitive
2
27. Samantha just had her purse stolen while walking down Fifth Avenue in New York City which is a very busy part of Manhattan. She screamed loudly, and several people looked in her direction, but nobody stopped walking or made an attempt to help. She immediately broke down in tears and trembled for 10 minutes until she could walk to her car. This is an example of _____.
democracy
——> bystander effect
diffusion of effects
flaws in the judicial system
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
28. In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was developed by _____.
William James
William Tell
——> Wilhelm Wundt
Sigmund Freud
3
29. Jeff’s car broke down and smoke started rising from the engine. He felt lucky to have broken down while parked in the center of town during lunch when many people were outside and could help. However, 30 minutes has passed and despite the heavily populated area, nobody has offered assistance. This is an example of the _____.
zeitgeist
behaviorist effect
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> bystander effect
self-serving prophecy
3
30. Which perspective assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions because it served a useful function in preserving the species?
Psychoanalysis
behaviorism
cognitive psychology
——> evolutionary psychology
4
31. Why was the perspective followed by Wilhelm Wundt and his followers called structuralism?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
They wanted to identify the major brain structures.
Their primary goal was to understand the physiology of the mind.
They focused their efforts on analyzing the elements of the nervous system.
——> Their primary focus was on describing the structure of conscious experience.
4
32. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. “I’ll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50.” The revealed answer is “Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?
“Who is B. F. Skinner?”
“Who are the humanists?”
——> “Who is Sigmund Freud?”
“Who are the behaviorists?”
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
33. Darley and Latan� (1968) believe that the presence of other people in a distressing situation decreased the likelihood that they would receive help due to _____.
diffusion of anonymity
——> diffusion of responsibility
flaws in laws protecting Good Samaritans
timeliness of onset
2
34. What did Sigmund Freud consider as the key to understanding the nervous disorders he observed?
free will
brain physiology
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> unconscious mind
external consequences
3
35. Self-actualization was part of which of the following perspectives?
Behaviorism
Cognitive perspective
Functionalism
——> Humanism
4
36. The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person’s experiences.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
intervention
——> introspection
insight inventory
induction
2
37. Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of the following might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research?
A survey of daydreams
——> An analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired
A survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women
An analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
38. Participants in research early in psychology’s history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, and texture and other aspects of their conscious experience. These individuals would have been using a method called _____.
hypnosis
——> introspection
psychosurgery
psychoanalysis
2
39. Professor Wenches approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?
social-cognitive learning
learning
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
cognitive approach
——> psychodynamic approach
4
40. Who was an early proponent of functionalism?
Ivan Pavlov
——> William James
Wilhelm Wundt
Max Wertheimer
2
41. The process of hearing sounds takes place in the:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
limbic system
sensory cortex
reticular formation
association areas
——> auditory cortex
5
42. Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue in the sensory cortex?
arms
fingers
——> face
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
trunk
knees
3
43. Cortical areas not primarily concerned with sensory, language, or motor functions are:
called projection areas
called emotional areas
——> called association areas
located in the temporal lobe
located in the occipital lobe
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
44. Luke is recovering from damage in his left frontal lobe. He is having trouble speaking. Luke’s problem is:
split-brain
spatial neglect
myopia
——> Broca’s aphasia
Wernicke’s aphasia
4
45. The cell body of a neuron is also called the:
axon
dendrite
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
nucleas
——> soma
myelin sheath
4
46. Which of the following is NOT a part of a neuron?
——> neurotransmitter
myelin sheath
soma
axon
axon terminal
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
47. The speed at which an action potential travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n):
association area
——> myelin sheath
endocrine gland
glial cell
synapse
2
48. Which of the following structures is considered to be the fundamental building block of the nervous system?
soma
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> neuron
axon terminals
dendrites
neurotransmitter
2
49. Branching extensions of the neuron are:
neurotransmitters
glial cells
——> dendrites
axons
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
glands
3
50. The fatty tissue that protects the axon and gives nerves their whitish color is called:
neuropeptides
axon terminals
——> myelin
receptor sites
endorphins
3
51. The central nervous system consists of:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
sensory and motor neurons
somatic and autonomic subsystems
——> the brain and the spinal cord
sympathetic and parasympathetic branches
afferent and efferent neurons
3
52. The role of the parasympathetic nervous system is to:
prepare the body for flight-or-flight response
——> establish homeostasis after the fight-or-flight response
prompt the body to use its resources in responding to an emergency
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
prepare the body to cope with stress
communicate between the afferent and efferent neurons
2
53. The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ________nervous systems:
autonomic
sympathetic
parasympathetic
——> peripheral
somatic
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
54. Motor neurons transmit signals to:
——> muscles and glands
interneurons
efferent neurons
afferent neurons
sensory neurons
1
55. Information is carried from the central nervous system to the body’s tissues by:
interneurons
sensory neurons
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> motor neurons
afferent neurons
the glial cells
3
56. Following a head injury, a person has difficulty staying awake. Most likely, the damage occurred to the:
thalamus
corpus callosum
——> reticular formation
angular gyrus
cerebellum
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
57. The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in:
——> children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed
individuals with Alzheimer’s disease
adults with aphasia
elderly stroke patients
people free of any disease or brain damage
1
58. A bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres is known as the:
fissure
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
limbic system
——> corpus callosum
association areas
angular gyrus
3
59. Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce a person’s ability to:
——> solve arithmetic problems
copy drawings
recognize faces
recognize familiar melodies
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
process whole patterns
1
60. A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter or blocks its reuptake is called a(n):
glutamate
steroid
antagonist
——> agonist
opiate
4
61. Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> dopamine
epinephrine
acetylcholine
serotonin
GABA
1
62. A synaptic gap is a(n):
chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions
automatic response to sensory input
neural network
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
neural cable containing many axons
4
63. Opiate drugs act as agonist and occupy the same receptor sites as:
acetylcholine
serotonin
——> endorphins
dopamine
epinephrine
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
64. Endorphins are considered:
——> neurotransmitters
sex hormones
hormones
endocrine glands
morphine agonists
1
65. Evidence indicates that Alzheimer’s disease is most closely linked to the loss of neurons that produce:
dopamine
——> acetylcholine
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
serotonin
epinephrine
endorphins
2
66. Communication within a neuron is ________________. Communication between neurons is ______________________.
electrical; electrical
——> electrical; chemical
chemical; chemical
chemical; electrical
chemical; electrochemical
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
67. The brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the:
synapse
agonist
——> action potential
myelin sheath
refractory period
3
68. Increasing excitatory signals above threshold levels for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that the reaction of a neuron is:
inhibited by the myelin sheath
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
delayed by the refractory period
——> an all-or-none response
independent of the repolarization
dependent on neurotransmitter molecules
3
69. The depolarization of a neural membrane creates a(n):
——> action potential
myelin sheath
lesion
neural network
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
interneuron
1
70. An action potential is generated by the movement of:
glial cells
hormones
vesicles
neuropeptides
——> ions
5
71. The ‘all-or-none’ principal refers to the fact that:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
all neurons in the brain either fire or none of them fire
neurotransmitters are released into the synapse or not
——> action potentials occur completely or they do not occur at all
an electrical current crosses the synapse or not at all
nerve cells are active in a lobe or not
3
72. A technique psychologists use to measure electrical activity in the brain is:
——> EEG
lesion
fMRI
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
CAT scan
PET scan
1
73. To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n):
——> PET scan
hemispherectomy
CT scan
lobotomy
brain lesions
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
74. Computer-generated color images of the brain that provide information about brain activity and glucose metabolism are produced by which brain imaging technique?
CAT scan
——> PET scan
EEG
MRI
lesioning
2
75. Which of the following techniques would researchers inject a harmless, radioactive substance into a brain to examine activity?
EEG
CAT scan
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> PET scan
MRI
lesioning
3
76. To measure electrical activity in the brain, one should conduct a(n):
MRI
——> EEG
PET scan
CT scan
split-brain procedure
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
77. A person who sustains major injuries to the medulla will:
be paralyzed
fall into a coma
suffer from aphasia
experience a loss of vision
——> die
5
78. The structure of the brain considered most important to our feeding behaviors is the:
hippocampus
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
medulla
thalamus
——> hypothalamus
amygdala
4
79. Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?
——> thalamus
amygdala
medulla
hippocampus
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
cerebellum
1
80. The section of the brainstem responsible for controlling heartbeat and breathing is called the:
cerebellum
——> medulla
reticular formation
thalamus
2
81. Which of the following brain structures has been linked with the regulation of hunger, thirst, and body temperature?
hippocampus
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
thalamus
——> hypothalamus
amygdala
pons
3
82. Carolina was always hungry. After visiting the doctor, she was told that her _________was producing too much insulin, causing low blood sugar.
pituitary gland
adrenal gland
gonads
thyroid gland
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> pancreas
5
83. In response to high blood sugar levels, the pancreas releases which hormone?
endorphins
acetylcholine
serotonin
epinephrine
——> insulin
5
84. The master gland of the endocrine system is the:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
thyroid gland
hypothalamus
adrenal gland
——> pituitary gland
pancreas
4
85. The endocrine system consists of:
glial cells
neural networks
interneurons
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> glands
fissures
4
86. The process by which physical sensations are converted into neural messages consecutively to be sent to the brain for perception is known as:
transfusion
just noticeable difference
——> transduction
transensation
subliminal perception
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
87. The smallest difference between two stimuli that can be detected 50% of the time it is present is called:
absolute threshold
——> difference threshold
sensory adaptation
subliminal perception
sensory perception
2
88. The reality that stress increases your sensitivity to faint pain stimuli is important to a student’s understanding of:
——> signal detection theory
place theory
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
frequency theory
opponent process theory
placebo theory
1
89. Weber’s law would be applicable in a student’s understanding of:
absolute threshold
subliminal threshold
——> difference threshold
sensory adaptation
sensory interaction
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
90. Men tend to have more _____ in their dreams than do women.
cars
females
——> physical aggression
physical activity
happiness
3
91. A revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams in which information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams is known as:
activation-synthesis hypothesis
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> activation-information model
activation-synthesis medium
activation-synthesis theory
activation-information dreams
2
92. The “hidden observer” theory of hypnosis emphasizes the role of _____ in hypnosis.
social role-playing
habituation
suggestion effect
——> dissociation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
age regression
4
93. Marcia, a senior in college, has a 4.0 GPA. She wakes up the morning before her Developmental Psychology final and remembered her dream where she failed the exam with a 38%. Using the Freudian perspective of dreams, the 38% on the exam represents the _____ content of her dream.
——> manifest
latent
symbolic
hidden
activation synthesis
1
94. During the process of sleep, the pineal gland received instructions from the suprachiasmatic nucleus on when to release _____. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is trigger by sunlight and knows when to signal the pineal gland. That way you know to wake up!
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
serotonin
cortisol
——> melatonin
dopamine
endorphins
3
95. Randall, a sophomore in college, sporadically stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to gasping for air and then falls back to sleep very quickly. Larry’s college roommate complains that Larry loudly snores every night. Larry may be suffering from:
narcolepsy
night terrors
insomnia
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
sleep snoring
——> sleep apnea
5
96. What is the theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active?
——> adaptive sleep theory
restorative sleep theory
safety sleep theory
protective sleep theory
internal sleep theory
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
97. The increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights is known as:
REM paralysis
REM sleep
——> REM rebound
REM reduction
REM behavior disorder
3
98. The long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep are known as:
alpha
beta
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> delta
gamma
chi
3
99. Pain Sensations in the skin, muscles, tendons, and joints that are carried on large nerve fibers are called:
visceral pain
——> somatic pain
referred pain
phantom pain
indigenous pain
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
100. The sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other is called:
vestibular Sense
——> kinesthetic sense
habituation
olfaction
gustation
2
101. Which sensory receptors would play biggest part in alerting you when you have forgotten to wash your gym socks for 3 weeks?
feature receptors
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
somesthetic sense
vestibular sense
——> olfactory receptors
smell detectors
4
102. Lindemann suggested to the world in 1966 that there was fifth primary taste called:
——> brothy
spicy
peppery
minty
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
cool
1
103. The sense of taste is also known as:
olfaction
habituation
sensation
kinethesis
——> gustation
5
104. This is the short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardrum.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
cochlea
oval window
ossicles
——> auditory canal
hammer
4
105. Jose believes that humans are able to hear because the hair cells in the ear’s cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where the hair cells are located. Which theory of pitch does Jose hold to?
hair cell theory
frequency theory
cochlear theory
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> place theory
tympanic theory
4
106. Which of the following would be the most effective treatment for someone suffering from nerve hearing impairment?
TAD
——> cochlear implant
hearing aid
OBI
there is no way to help them
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
107. Dr. Harshbarger works with Cochlear Implants. What type of patients would she be working with?
loss of position
loss of movement
——> nerve hearing loss
conduction hearing loss
loss of balance
3
108. Vivian suffered from very serious ear infections as a young child. As a result, she has suffered hearing loss. What type of hearing impairment does Vivian suffer with?
Nerve
——> conduction
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
infection
volley
pitch
2
109. After drinking 6 bottles of beer, William feels a lower sense of shame about the way he acted toward his co-workers. Lewis’ reduced remorse levels most likely are because of the fact that alcohol is a:
stimulant
——> depressant
hallucinogen
aggitator
aggressor
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
110. The physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems is called:
physical dependence
psychological dependence
tolerance
——> withdrawal
psychoactive
4
111. A distorted state of awareness in which a person sees amazing images and often feels like they are floating “above their body”� can be linked with what hallucinogenic drug?
caffeine
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
cocaine
——> LSD
aspirin
morphine
3
112. Which of the drugs listed below would be identified as a stimulant?
LSD
alcohol
——> nicotine
morphine
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
benzodiazepines
3
113. When you receive information from your senses that seem to conflict with each other, which sense is the dominate sense over the other senses?
——> seeing
smelling
hearing
touching
kinesthesis
1
114. When a baby is born, a baby does not possess the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. This develops early in infancy. The newborn baby is lacking:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
height perception
——> depth perception
dimension perception
pictorial depth
monocular cue
2
115. The fast movement of briefly flashed images in an animated motion picture produces what effect?
subliminal messaging
convergence
autokinetic effect
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> stroboscopic movement
Phi phenomenon
4
116. The method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion is called:
——> perception
sensation
detection
priming
generalization
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
117. The perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much farther away is called:
interposition
aerial perspective
linear perspective
overlap
——> relative size
5
118. What is the purity of the color people perceive?
——> saturation
visible spectrum
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
wavelength
hue
radial kerototomy
1
119. What is the function of the lens in the eye?
it sends visual information to the brain
it changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment
it is the central area of the retina
it controls the size of the pupil
——> it changes shape to bring objects into focus
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
5
120. The recovery of the eye’s sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights is known as:
light recovery
——> dark recovery
visual capture
visual accommodation
blindness
2
121. The opponent-process theory believes that the sense receptors are organized in the retina in pairs. Red is paired with _________________ and yellow is paired with _____________.
blue; black
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
yellow; black
green; black
——> green; blue
blue; black
4
122. Mary Ainsworth observed that securely attached infants __________.
do not seem to care when the mother leaves the room and do not seek her out on her return
protest loudly when the mother leaves but resist contact with her when she returns
——> cry if the mother leaves the room, are easily soothed, and welcome her back when she returns
are not concerned upon separation but cry to be picked up and held on her return
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
are not concerned upon separation and do not respond to her return
3
123. Shelby is very adaptable to change. She is on a regular sleeping, eating, and waking schedule. Thomas and Chess would describe Shelby as being a(n) _________ child.
——> easy
difficult
slow-to-warm-up
undemanding
avoidant
1
124. Chester is irritable, loud, and negative most of the time. He does not like it when new people pick him up, and he has irregular sleeping, eating, and waking schedules. According to Thomas and Chess, what temperament does Chester exhibit?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
active
slow-to-warm-up
——> difficult
easy
unconventional
3
125. Between the ages of 5 and 12, children strive to develop a sense of competence arising from their work and effort. Erikson refers to this stage of life as ___________.
trust versus mistrust
autonomy versus shame and doubt
——> industry versus inferiority
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
initiative versus guilt
intimacy versus isolation
3
126. Erikson’s theory of social development viewed the period from ages 3 to 6, his third stage, as characterized by the major challenge of ______.
identity versus role diffusion
industry versus inferiority
——> initiative versus guilt
autonomy versus shame and doubt
intimacy versus isolation
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
127. Mothers who were unresponsive, insensitive, and coldly rejecting were associated with ___________ attached infants.
securely
——> avoidant
ambivalent
disorganized/disoriented
slow-to-warm-up
2
128. Brad is 18 and is looking into career options. He is currently deciding whether he wants to become a gourmet chef or a race car driver. Brad is at what stage of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development?
integrity versus despair
intimacy versus isolation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
generativity versus stagnation
industry versus inferiority
——> identity versus role confusion
5
129. On big moral issues, parents and teens tend to __________.
completely disagree
——> be in agreement
are not familiar with each other’s position
have intense arguments
have mild to moderate arguments
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
130. The development of formal operations in adolescence leads to ______.
extroverted behavior
a lessening of self-analysis compared to preoperational thought
——> introspection and egocentrism
thinking in terms of concrete things
thinking more about others than themselves
3
131. Obedience to rules because of the fear of punishment is a characteristic of __________.
conventional morality
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> preconventional morality
principled morality
postconventional morality
committed morality
2
132. Brad is in an electronics store with his parents. He looks at the CDs and thinks for a moment that he could grab one and put it beneath his coat. As he considers this possibility, he decides not to do it because he might get caught and his parents would punish him. What stage of moral development does Brad’s decision represent?
preoperational
——> preconventional
autonomous moral principles
conventional role conformity
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
committed morality
2
133. Which of the following is NOT evidence of puberty in boys?
the growth of the testes and penis
the appearance of pubic hair
the appearance of underarm hair
——> higher pitch of the voice
the appearance of a beard
4
134. Mary is an adolescent who currently has a small pimple on her cheek that is causing her to be overly self-conscious. She is convinced that everyone she meets stares at and talks about her pimple. Mary’s behavior exhibits ____________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
a sense of idealism
——> imaginary audience
personal fable
puberty
internalization
2
135. Mary and Juan are twins who developed from two separate fertilized ova that were fertilized by two different sperm. What type of twins are they?
monozygotic twins
maternal twins
——> dizygotic twins
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
womb mates
semi-identical
3
136. Diseases carried by recessive genes are inherited when ____________.
——> a child inherits two recessive genes, one from each parent
a child inherits two dominant genes, one from each parent
a child inherits a dominant gene from one parent and a recessive gene from the other parent
a child inherits two messenger genes, one from each parent
when the child does not inherit any genes from one parent
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
137. Juan and Carlos are identical twins. Juan was raised by his father and mother, and Carlos was accidentally placed with another family after a “mix up” at the hospital. At the age of 15, both boys “ran into each other” at a football game and noticed how they appeared to be “mirror images of each other.” After proving they were twins by genetic testing, the families discussed some of the differences between the boys. Juan is very athletic and intelligent and excels in basketball but does not take school seriously and has F’s in all subjects. Carlos is also athletic and intelligent, and excels in baseball and makes straight A’s as a result of his strict home life and study routine. Although they are identical twins, what do you think accounts for the differences in their academic performance based on the research?
——> nurture
nature
school district superintendent
teacher appraisals of performance
cognitive restructuring
1
138. Sheila was born a female with only one X chromosome on the 23rd pair. As a result, she is infertile, has difficulty learning, and did not develop breast tissue and rounded hips as her female peers did. Which disorder is likely to be diagnosed?
PKU
Down
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Klinefelter’s
——> Turner’s
triple X
4
139. The study of heredity is called _________.
human development
——> genetics
physiology
gerontology
anatomy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
140. At fertilization, the chromosomes from the father’s sperm unite with the chromosomes from the mother’s egg, creating a new cell called a(n) _______________.
embryo
——> zygote
genome
blastocyst
fetus
2
141. Fraternal twins are ______ similar genetically than are other brothers and sisters.
much more
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
slightly more
much less
slightly less
——> no more
5
142. What is the cause of Down syndrome?
——> an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
an extra X chromosome on the 23rd pair
neurotransmitter excesses
neurotransmitter deficiencies
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
messenger gene deficiencies
1
143. Professor Sanchez is interested in studying development of motor skills. She collects data from 200 one-year-olds and follows and assesses them for a period of five years. What type of research design is Professor Sanchez using?
cohort design
——> longitudinal design
behavior genetics design
cross-sectional design
cross-sequential design
2
144. The local health department of a small town has hired a research firm to study the development of cancer in residents in the town due to a suspected cancer-causing agent and environmental pollution. The researcher will compare data on participants at age 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 to see if there are increasing rates of cancer in the town. This type of research study is called a __________________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
cross-sequential design
——> longitudinal design
behavior genetics design
cross-sectional design
applied behavior analysis design
2
145. Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to _________.
——> combine longitudinal and cross-sectional research strategies
look for gender differences
reduce experimenter bias
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
only include cross-sectional strategies within the design
reduce the volunteer effect
1
146. In a __________ design, one group of participants is followed and assessed as the group ages.
cohort
behavior genetics
cross-sectional
cross-sequential
——> longitudinal
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
147. Professor Rashad is interested in studying cognitive development. He collects and compares data from a group of 6-year-olds and a group of 10-year-olds. Five years later, he compares these two groups to each other again as well as to their own performance in the study five years ago. What type of research design is Professor Rashad using?
——> cross-sequential design
longitudinal design
behavior genetics design
cross-sectional design
applied behavior analysis design
1
148. The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death is called _________.
abnormal psychology
gerontology
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> human development
maturational studies
a longitudinal study
3
149. Older adults who look back on their lives with regret, wishing they could relive their lives, have not successfully resolved Erikson’s psychosocial crisis of ______________.
——> integrity versus despair
intimacy versus isolation
generativity versus stagnation
identity versus role confusion
industry versus inferiority
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
150. Leticia has just learned that she is terminally ill. She is now always irritable, often throws things on the floor, and yells at members of her family and the nurses who care for her. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Leticia is most likely in the _________ stage of dying.
——> anger
bargaining
denial
reactive
acceptance
1
151. According to Erikson, an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining one’s sense of self, is called ________.
bonding
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> intimacy
attachment
attraction
affiliation
2
152. The theory in which aging is attributed to our bodies’ organs and cell tissues simply wearing out with repeated use and abuse is called _________.
activity theory
——> wear-and-tear theory
disengagement theory
cellular clock theory
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
senescence theory
2
153. Hector is 70 years old and has just retired from a career as a lawyer. He is now spending time looking back on his life and is recognizing, as well as coming to terms with, mistakes, regrets, and unfinished business. Hector is engaging in a process called ___________.
despair
sense of identity
ego integrity
——> life review
generativity
4
154. Erik Erikson saw the major challenge of middle adulthood as that of ______.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
intimacy versus isolation
industry versus inferiority
identity versus role diffusion
integrity versus despair
——> generativity versus stagnation
5
155. Aaron is a middle-aged physician. He gives back to the community by acting as a mentor to teenagers interested in entering the medical profession. Erikson would say that Aaron is experiencing _________.
intimacy
identity
——> generativity
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
integrity
industry
3
156. Which of the following describes the embryonic period?
the period during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining
——> the period during which the major organs and structures of the organism first develop
the period during which the umbilical cord develops
the period during which the placenta begins to function
the period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become functional
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
157. Emily and her husband are thrilled as they peer into Emily’s uterus by means of an ultrasound. The physician reports that the pregnancy appears normal, and that their baby’s fingers, toes, heart, and circulatory system are developing as expected. The couple learns that the baby is only three-quarters of an inch long. Given this information, the current stage of prenatal development is the _________.
——> embryonic period
germinal period
zygotic period
fetal stage
placenta
1
158. Which of the following describes the fetal period?
the period during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining
the period during which the major organs and structures of the organism first develop
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the period during which the umbilical cord develops
the period during which the placenta begins to function
——> the period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become functional .
5
159. Tameeka is at a point in her pregnancy during which the major organs and structures of her baby are first developing. Which period of prenatal development is Tameeka currently experiencing?
fetal
——> embryonic
placental
germinal
umbilical
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
160. The most likely cause for miscarriage during the first three months of pregnancy is _______.
——> a genetic defect
alcohol use
not taking prenatal vitamins
lack of exercise
smoking
1
161. What are some of the common consequences to a child whose mother smoked while pregnant?
increased birth weight and lethargy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> lower birth weight and short stature
severe hearing loss and heart defects
severely deformed limbs and muscle spasms
heart defects and poor reflexes
2
162. Your little sister picks up objects, feels every part of them, and then puts them in her mouth. What stage of Jean Piaget’s model of cognitive development does this behavior suggest she is in?
concrete operations
——> sensorimotor
preoperational
formal operations
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
schematic stage
2
163. By what age do infants develop a preference for salty tastes?
at birth
within a few days after birth
at one month
——> by four months
within a year after birth
4
164. According to Piaget, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature is known as ___________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
object permanence
——> conservation
centration
reversibility
assimilation
2
165. Which is the correct order of development of Six Motor Milestones, according to research?
sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking, raising head and chest, rolling over
crawling, walking, raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support
——> raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking, raising head and chest
rolling over, raising head and chest, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking
3
166. Which sense is the LEAST functional at birth?
touch
taste
smell
hearing
——> vision
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
167. At birth, newborns seem most responsive to ________.
——> high pitches and low pitches
hip-hop music
moderate voice pitches
rock and roll music
classical music
1
168. According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development between 2 and 7 years of age, in which the child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world, is the ______ stage.
concrete operations
sensorimotor
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> preoperational
formal operations
schematic
3
169. What term is used to describe a child’s inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes except his or her own?
disparity
narcissism
——> egocentrism
autonomy
accommodation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
170. The area at the back of the temporal lobe that is crucial in the ability to listen, process, and understand what others are saying is __________ area.
Broca’s
Gall’s
——> Wernicke’s
Korsakoff’s
Cajal’s
3
171. If Darren’s brain is like that of most people, then language will be handled by his __________.
corpus callosum
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
occipital lobe
right hemisphere
——> left hemisphere
cerebellum
4
172. The area of the frontal lobe that is devoted to the production of fluent speech is ______ area.
——> Broca’s
Gall’s
Wernicke’s
Korsakoff’s
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Cajal’s
1
173. The part of the brain located just behind the temples, containing neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, is called the __________.
association areas
parietal lobes
frontal lobes
occipital lobes
——> temporal lobes
5
174. Which of the following lobes are involved in planning, memory, and personality?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
temporal lobes
parietal lobes
——> frontal lobes
occipital lobes
association areas
3
175. Robert’s mother is usually meticulous in her presentation. When picking her up for a family dinner, he noticed that her make-up was only applied to the right side of her face. Her hair was also brushed on the right side, but on the left it was matted and uncombed. He immediately took her to the hospital after she was unaware of any problems. She was diagnosed with __________, which is evidenced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere.
Wernicke’s aphasia
Broca’s aphasia
——> spatial neglect
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
split-brain
temporal lobe damage
3
176. The hormone released by the pineal gland that reduces body temperature and prepares you for sleep is __________.
——> melatonin
DHEA
parathormone
thyroxin
insulin
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
177. Your teacher asks you to describe the sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during neural conduction. Which of the following sequences will you offer?
dendrites, axon, soma, synaptic knob
terminal buttons, axon, soma, dendrites
axon, soma, dendrites, synaptic knob
dendrites, synaptic knob, axon, soma
——> dendrites, soma, axon, synaptic knob
5
178. A culture’s expectation of masculine and feminine behaviors can be defined as _____________________.
homosexual
heterosexual
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> gender roles
gender typing
gender specificity
3
179. Traditional views of gender roles are more likely found in ____________.
——> collectivist cultures
individualistic cultures
countries like the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and England
all of these
none of these
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
180. ________ is the process by which people learn their culture’s preferences and expectations for proper “masculine” and “feminine” behaviors.
Gender role
Gender identity
——> Gender typing
Gender stereotyping
Gender specification
3
181. Research on differences in male and female brain activity has found that ________________,
when doing language tasks, women’s brains tend to be more active in the right hemisphere than men.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
men use the right side of the brain for emotional expression, whereas women use both sides.
men use the left side of the brain for visual/spatial expression, whereas women use both sides.
——> all of the above
none of the above
4
182. According to research, infant girls who were exposed to androgens were found to be more likely to ____________.
have a very “feminine” childhood and prefer to play with dolls.
——> be “tomboys” during their childhood but grew up to be more “typically female” in adulthood and had a desire for marriage and motherhood.
be “feminine” during their childhood but grew up to be more “typically male” in adulthood and less emotional than other women.
be treated differently by teachers and friends as adolescents.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
have a very “masculine” attitude in adulthood despite their sex.
2
183. Which is NOT a potential cause of ADHD according to the research?
teratogens
prematurity
high level of lead in the body
prefrontal brain damage
——> restlessness
5
184. Medication for ADHD for children can also be effective for adult symptoms. Which of the following are types of medications that are used to treat this condition?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
antipsychotics and stimulants
——> stimulants and antidepressants
antidepressants and antipsychotics
antianxiety and antidepressants
stimulants and antianxiety
2
185. You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often “fails to generalize.” Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion?
correlation
——> case study
experiment
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
surveys
anonymous questionnaire
2
186. Which of the following items is a gauge of the degree of disparity among a set of events?
mean
correlation coefficient
z-score
——> standard deviation
t-score
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
187. A(n)_________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
independent variable
dependent variable
experimental effect
control variable
——> correlation
5
188. When school psychologist observes a kindergarten classsroom, the psychologist is engaging in a form of ______.
case study research
——> naturalistic observation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
survey research
experimentation
psychometric study
2
189. ______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group.
the double-blind study
field research
the triple-blind study
——> the single-blind study
correlational research
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
190. A correlation is a numerical measure of the __________________.
unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues from the experimenter.
——> strength of the relationship between two variables.
behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time.
behaviors of participants followed and periodically assessed over time.
behaviors of participants of all ages compared at a given time.
2
191. A psychologist wanted to see if people are more prone to seek the company of others when anxious than when calm. He randomly assigned half of his subjects to an anxiety group and then told then that as part of the study, they would receive electric shocks. He did not frighten the other group of subjects. Finally, he recorded how many subjects in each group chose to be “tested” in a group setting and how many chose to be “tested” alone. In this study, the group that was NOT frightened would be called the ______________ group.
experimental
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> control
placebo
graded
test
2
192. In order to stop experimental subjects from trying to confirm the scientist’s hypothesis, psychologist sometimes ___________.
obtain written promises from participants to be honest
maintain subject confidentiality
maintain participant confidentiality
——> deceive participants about the true purpose of the experiment
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
allow people to chose when they want to leave the study
4
193. Which sub-field of psychology would center on the degree to which diverse parenting styles are supported among different cultural communities?
evolutionary
psychodynamic
——> sociocultural
neuroscience
humanism
3
194. To obtain objective information, researchers sometimes must deceive their subjects. Ethically, research involving deception must always ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
pay participants
maintain subject anonymity
——> explain the deception to the subjects after the data is collected and obtain their informed consent to use the information obtained
use a survey method
use double-blind control
3
195. In an experiment to test the effects of anxiety on performance, the dependent variable is the __________________.
amount of anxiety
age of the person
age of the parents
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> person’s performance
cause of the anxiety
4
196. Jody is creating on documentary of fast food eating behaviors in America. Jody and her crew went to McDonald’s to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. She brought a camera crew and bright lights, microphones, and they talked very loudly while taping the behaviors. Jody said she wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of the ____________.
room crowding effect
——> observer effect
participant observation principle
food embarrassment principle
Thorndike law
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
197. The greatest disadvantage of correlational research is __________________.
it has limited range of values, being only -1 to +1
——> it does not enable cause-and-effect conclusion
its value can be negative
its value can be zero
its value can be positive
2
198. Dr. Hogberg has diagnosed a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. He choses to give a prescription for Aderall. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Hogberg is a _________________.
——> psychiatrist
psychologist
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
humanistic psychologist
IO Psychologist
school psychologist
1
199. Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct?
There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals.
There are rules that prevent the killing of animals.
There are guidelines for the slight discomfort of animals.
——> Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary.
New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
200. “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” is a statement associated with the perspective of ______________ .
introspection
functionalism
psychoanalysis
structuralism
——> gestaltism
5
201. Which perspective assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions because it served a useful function in preserving the species?
psychoanalysis
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
behaviorism
cognitive psychology
humanistic psychology
——> evolutionary psychology
5
202. A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would BEST be advised to see a _____________.
——> psychiatrist
cognitive psychologist
physician
psychiatric social worker
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
psychologist
1
203. While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seems to move. Which perspective in psychology would be most likely to study this phenomenon?
——> gestalt
behavioral
humanistic
developmental
psychodynamic
1
204. Medication for ADHD for children can also be effective for adult symptoms. Which of the following are types of medications that are used to treat this condition?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
antipsychotics and stimulants
——> stimulants and antidepressants
antidepressants and antipsychotics
antianxiety and antidepressants
stimulants and antianxiety
2
205. Based on the studies of infant girls who were exposed to androgens before birth, which of the following statements is true?
——> In these studies, the girls were found to be tomboys during early childhood.
In these studies, the girls were found to prefer feminine activities during early childhood.
In these studies, the majority of the girls grew up to be lesbians.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
In these studies, there were no noticeable effects due to these treatments.
The girls were treated differently by teachers and friends as adolescents.
1
206. Dr. Bartholomew believes people who are very hostile have become so because of their environment. Dr. Tiburon believes people’s level of hostility is from birth because of genetic factors. Which of the following terms best describes an issue in human development that is highlighted by their disagreement?
cognition versus emotion
classical versus operant conditioning
genetics versus socialization
cross-sectional studies versus longitudinal studies
——> nature versus nurture
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
207. Which of the following is the MOST common cause of death in middle adulthood?
suicide
homicide
——> heart disease
stroke
cancer
3
208. What was Mary Ainsworth trying to determine when she devised an experimental method called the Strange Situation?
the nature of gestural communication between mothers and babies
aspects of purposeful exploration as the baby investigates a strange environment
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
parental discipline styles in the first year of life
the distinction between separation and stranger anxiety
——> the nature of attachment between caretakers and babies
5
209. Mary Ainsworth observed that securely attached infants __________.
do not seem to care when the mother leaves the room and do not seek her out on her return
protest loudly when the mother leaves but resist contact with her when she returns
——> cry if the mother leaves the room, are easily soothed, and welcome her back when she returns
are not concerned upon separation but cry to be picked up and held on her return
are not concerned upon separation and do not respond to her return
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
210. Aaron is a middle-aged physician. He gives back to the community by acting as a mentor to teenagers interested in entering the medical profession. Erikson would say that Aaron is experiencing _________.
intimacy
identity
——> generativity
integrity
industry
3
211. According to research conducted by Ridley (1999), how could individuals like Adolf Hitler, serial killer Ted Bundy, and Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh commit such acts according to the “nature versus nurture” debate?
These individuals were born (nature) to commit such horrendous acts. It was in their genetic makeup.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Their behaviors are the result of the interaction of nature and nurture.
These individual’s behaviors were attributed to “nurture” and influences of their parents.
These individuals learned to commit these behaviors after staying in long periods of isolation, according to Ridley.
These individuals learned to commit these behaviors due to negative experiences in school, according to Ridley.
2
212. At what point during infancy can babies tell the difference between their own mother’s milk scent and another woman’s milk scent?
at birth
——> within a few days after birth
within a few weeks after birth
within a few months after birth
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
within a year after birth
2
213. Which is the correct order of development of Six Motor Milestones, according to research?
sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking, raising head and chest, rolling over
crawling, walking, raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support
——> raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking
rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking, raising head and chest
rolling over, raising head and chest, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking
3
214. Jean Piaget is noted for his theory of ______, and Lawrence Kohlberg is known for his theory ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> cognitive development; moral development
perceptual development; moral development
language development; cognitive development
cognitive development; motor development
reflex development; motor development
1
215. Professor Grant is interested in studying the development of a sense of humor. She collects data from groups of 6-year-olds, 16-year-olds, 26-year-olds, and 46-year-olds. What type of research design is Professor Grant using?
cohort design
longitudinal design
behavior genetics design
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> cross-sectional design
cross-sequential design
4
216. All of the following are reasons that middle-aged adults experience changes in memory EXCEPT _______.
stress
having more information to remember
having more difficulty retrieving information
having more information stored in memory
——> hardening of the arteries
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
217. The period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult, is called ________.
——> adolescence
tweens
young adulthood
early adulthood
puberty
1
218. In a __________ design, one group of participants is followed and assessed as the group ages.
cohort
behavior genetics
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
cross-sectional
cross-sequential
——> longitudinal
5
219. Shandreka is at a place in her pregnancy during which she is experiencing muscle contractions and movement and kicks. the major organs of her child are developing. Which prenatal development stage is Shandreka in?
——> fetal
embryonic
placental
fertilization
umbilical
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
220. What relatively new field investigates the influence of genes and heredity on a person’s actions?
psychobiology
neuropsychology
psychoanalysis
physiology
——> behavioral genetics
5
221. Your feeling of being male or female is known as your:
gender role
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
gender
sex
gender schema theory
——> gender identity
5
222. The gradual decline in the sexual reproductive system of males is called ____________.
menopause
perimenopause
male menopause
change of life
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> andropause
5
223. Kinds of neurons are connected to receptor cells in the skin, muscles, and joints?
motor neurons
——> sensory neurons
interneurons
peripheral neurons
afferent neurons
2
224. For a person to feel the pain of a broken toe, _________ must first send information from the toe to the central nervous system.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
interneurons
efferent neurons
motor neurons
glial cells
——> sensory neurons

5
225. Despite its dangers, a young man continues to take cocaine because of the feeling of euphoria it produces for him. This powerful arousal of his nervous system is probably due to cocaine’s ability to
——> prevent neurotransmitters from being reabsorbed into the synaptic vesicles
block the receptor sites for neurotransmitters
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
inhibit enzymes that break down neurotransmitters
increase the release of neurotransmitters
increase endorphin production
1
226. Sophia is always hungry. After visiting the pediatrician, her mother was told that her _________ was producing too much insulin, causing low blood sugar.
pituitary gland
adrenal gland
ovaries
thyroid gland
——> pancreas
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
5
227. Javier is confused on the difference between MRI and fMRI imaging techniques. How would you explain the difference?
MRI is less harmful.
MRI carries less risk to the patient.
fMRI provides gives more detail.
——> fMRI allows for real-time observations of changes in brain activity.
Neither shows soft tissue structures of the brain.
4
228. The brain’s “relay station” is the ________.
medulla
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
hypothalamus
pons
hippocampus
——> thalamus
5
229. A young woman recovering from a blow to her head finds she has great difficulty maintaining her balance and coordinating her movements. Injury to which part of her brain is likely to be causing her difficulties?
thalamus
——> cerebellum
medulla
cerebral cortex
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
corpus callosum
2
230. The process of digesting your last snack or meal or the unconscious regulation of your breathing are all primarily rooted in the ________ nervous system.
secondary
somatic
——> autonomic
limbic
primary
3
231. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for quick action in an emergency is the ________ division.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
encased by a myelin sheath
——> sympathetic
secondary
primary
central
2
232. Dr. Susa flashed a picture of a cat in the right visual field of a split-brain patient. The patient could most likely:
——> verbally report that a cat was seen
write the word cat using their left hand
draw a picture of the cat using their left hand
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
do all of the above
do none of the above
1
233. Lila sustained injuries to the medulla. What is most likely the result of this injury?:
paralysis
coma
aphasia
loss of vision
——> death
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
234. The part of the brain which interprets visual information is the ________.
——> occipital lobe
parietal lobe
CNS system
peripheral system
frontal lobe
1
235. Which part of the brain can be thought of as a major switching station that directs incoming information to the correct brain structure?
——> thalamus
cerebellum
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
reticular activating system
midbrain
hindbrain
1
236. The chemical messengers that move in the synaptic gap between neurons are called:
hormones
——> neurotransmitters
ganglia
afferent neurons
glial cells
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
237. A victim of a car wreck with head injuries, whose involuntary bodily processes (breathing, heartbeat, etc.) have been disturbed, probably has had damage done to the ________.
forebrain
hindbrain
——> medulla
pons
amygdala
3
238. Of the following structures listed below which is considered to be the basic building block of the nervous system?
dendrite
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> neuron
axon terminals
cell body
neurotransmission
2
239. When the sympathetic nervous system assumes control of the involuntary bodily processes during a stressful situation, which of the following changes is likely to occur?
sweat glands are less active
——> digestion stops
less blood is pumped to muscles
air passages become smaller
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
eyes dialate
2
240. Dr. Chapin has just finished a delicate brain operation. He turns to a group of interns and says, “She probably lost about 1000 ________, but since she still has over 100 billion left, she should recover nicely.” Dr. Chapin was most likely referring to
pituitary glands
——> neurons
speech and language areas
nerves
parts of the brain
2
241. A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at a terminal. The therapist suggests that the “terminal” in the dream indicates an unconscious desire by the client to “terminate” his boss. This desire to terminate the boss, if it exists, would reflect what Freud called the ________ content of the dream.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
secondary
primary
manifest
manifestation
——> latent
5
242. The tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on some background is known as ________.
accommodation
——> figure-ground
proximity
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
continuity
closeness
2
243. The Muller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures in which there are ________.
more men than women
lots of telephone poles
——> buildings with lots of corners
more women than men
more men than women
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
244. It is difficult to distinguish between colors at night because ________.
we are used to seeing mostly with the fovea
we are seeing primarily with the cones
——> we are seeing primarily with the rods
rods do not adapt to the dark
rods take the responsibility of the cones.
3
245. What is the basic function of the outer ear?
to filter out high-intensity sound waves that can be harmful
to amplify low-intensity sounds to detectable levels
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
to protect the hair cells
——> to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the eardrum
to filter out low-intensity sound waves that can be harmful
4
246. The best explanation of the moon illusion is ________.
——> the apparent distance hypothesis
the cultural bias hypothesis
the top-down processing hypothesis
the angle world hypothesis
hypothesis of illusion management
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
247. Your brain waves are being monitored in a sleep laboratory. If you are in deep sleep less than an hour after falling asleep, what brain waves will be detected?
——> delta
alpha
beta
theta
sigma
1
248. Which of the following conditions would you LEAST like the pilot flying your airplane to have?
daytime insomnia
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
sleep terror
enuresis
sleepwalking
——> narcolepsy
5
249. Sleepwalking occurs ________.
equally as often in REM and NREM sleep
primarily during REM sleep
——> primarily during NREM Stage 4 sleep
only in REM sleep
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
in stage 1
3
250. Why do you see a lemon as yellow?
Opposing processing between the visual cortex and auditory cortex.
The lemon absorbs red and blue wavelengths.
——> The lemon might reflect only yellow wavelengths in the yellow region of the spectrum.
The lemon absorbs yellow wavelengths in the yellow region of the spectrum.
The lemon distracts all of the other colors in the spectrum.
3
251. Each olfactory receptor cell has a half dozen to a dozen little hairs that project out. These are called ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> cilia
olfactory cones
olfactory rods
olfactory buds
olfactory cells
1
252. When Bill looks at his lamp alternately with his left eye and right eye, the image seems to jump from one position to another. This phenomenon illustrates ________.
——> binocular disparity
interposition
dimension perception
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the Gestalt principle of proximity
the Gestalt principle of similarity
1
253. Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called ________.
——> psychoactive drugs
legal drugs
illegal drugs
hallucinogens
stimulants
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
254. Which of the following describes what happens if you trace an auditory stimulus from the time it first reaches the ear until it arrives at the brain?
——> The outer ear (pinna) gathers sound waves and funnels them down the auditory canal striking the eardrum.
The auditory cones respond to the various tonal frequencies, which lead the auditory nerve to send a message to the brain.
The basilar membrane causes the hammer, anvil, and stirrup to vibrate striking the oval window.
The auditory nerve joins with the nasal nerve to produce an input to the olfactory lobe.
The auditory nerve separates with basilar membrane to produce sound waves.
1
255. ________ are the raw data of experience, based on the activation of certain receptors located in the various sensory organs.
Perceptions
Emotions
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Sensations
Cognitions
Sublimations
3
256. People’s tendency to perceive a thing a certain way because their previous experiences or expectations influence them is called ________.
bottom-up processing
——> perceptual expectancy
telepathy
top-down processing
perceptual constancy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
257. Which of the following pairs belong together?
MDMA; acetylcholine
marijuana; psilocybin
alcohol; nicotine
——> marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol
LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol
4
258. A sound mixer is impressed by the new equipment that was just installed in his recording studio. He says that now he will be able to help singers and musicians produce better CDs because he can eliminate unneeded and undesired wavelengths. What term describes the characteristic of sounds waves that the sound mixer is now able to alter?
amplitude
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
volleying
——> frequency
saturation
wavelength
3
259. Joachim and Maricella are going for a romantic walk in the park after an afternoon storm. Maricella looks up in the sky and sees a rainbow. She exclaims, “How beautiful!” Joachim, being something of a geek, might correctly say ________.
“That’s because you are seeing all the wavelengths of light we can see from short to long.”
“You are just seeing the visible spectrum.”
“That’s because different wavelengths lead to the perception of different colors.”
——> All of these things would be true if Joachim said them.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Some of these things would be true if Joachim said them
4
260. When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor presented tones to Ann through earphones. The tones started at a low intensity and then became louder. The doctor asked Ann to raise her hand whenever she started to hear a sound. The doctor was testing Ann’s ________.
refractory threshold
——> absolute threshold
auditory convergence
difference threshold
subliminal sensors
2
261. The abbreviation UCS stands for ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
uniformed conditioned subject
unconditional statement
conditioned stimulus
unconditional sensation
——> unconditioned stimulus
5
262. In the process of shaping, behaviors are ordered in terms of increasing similarity to the desired response. These behaviors are called ________.
unconditioned stimuli
——> successive approximations
primary reinforcers
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
secondary reinforcers
punishment
2
263. The abbreviation UCR stands for ________.
uniform conditioned rule
unconditional reinforcement
unconditional retention
——> unconditioned response
conditioned response
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
264. Al must build 25 radios before he receives $20. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?
a variable-ratio schedule
a continuous schedule
——> a fixed-ratio schedule
a fixed-interval schedule
a partial-interval schedule
3
265. After Pavlov’s dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell, he experimented with ringing the bell and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the bell. This represents the process called:
spontaneous recovery
——> extinction
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
acquisition
testing
discrimination
2
266. Normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. In terms of Pavlov’s analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as:
——> an unconditioned response
a voluntary response
a digestive reflux
a conditioned response
a unconditioned stimulus
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
267. When the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the UCS (food, in this case), the CR will “die out”in a process called:
——> extinction
CR fading
habituation
generalization fading
discrimination
1
268. Which of the following statements regarding Pavlov is accurate?
——> Pavlov was studying salivation in dogs as part of a research program on digestion.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Pavlov continued his Nobel Prize-winning research on digestion after documenting conditioning.
Pavlov was elated when his student first noticed that the dogs were salivating before tasting the food.
Pavlov stressed the importance of speculating about the dog’s feelings toward the food.
Pavlov stressed the importance of testing the dog’s thoughts toward the food.
1
269. What would you predict about Little Albert based on the principle of spontaneous recovery?
His fear of rats would disappear if he saw a rat without hearing a loud noise.
After his fear of loud noises was extinguished, the fear could come back.
——> Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.
His fear of loud noises would disappear if he heard a loud noise without a rat present.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Even after his fear of a rabbit was extinguished, the fear never came back.
3
270. Professor Rochelle told her students that if her door was closed it meant that she was unavailable to them and would be angry if they knocked on her door. But if her door was open, it meant that she was in a rare good mood and would answer questions at that time. Professor Rochelle’s door being open was a ________ for ________.
——> discriminative stimulus; asking questions
discriminative response; not asking questions
discriminative response; asking questions
discriminative stimulus; not asking questions
extinction stimulus; asking questions
1
271. Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
insight learning
learned helplessness
——> observational learning
classical conditioning
operant conditioning
3
272. The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred is called:
——> spontaneous recovery
instinctive drift
counterconditioning
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
stimulus discrimination
spontaneous extinction
1
273. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has been used with autistic children. The basic principle of this form of behavior modification is:
——> shaping
negative punishment
partial reinforcement
classical conditioning
aversive conditioning
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
274. The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus is called:
——> stimulus generalization
response generalization
stimulus adaptation
transfer of habit strength
stimulus disrimination
1
275. Pavlov’s model of classical conditioning was based on the idea that the conditioned stimulus, through its association close in time with the unconditioned stimulus, came to activate the same place in the animal’s brain that was originally activated by the unconditioned stimulus. This was known as:
higher-order conditioning
the cognitive perspective
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the Skinner model
——> stimulus substitution
stimulus discrimination
4
276. ________ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
Aadaptation
——> Learning
Memory enhancement
Muscle memory
Habituation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
277. Which of the following statements is true regarding punishment?
Severe punishment creates fear and anxiety.
The effect of punishment is often temporary.
Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement.
——> All of these statements are true.
Some of these statements are true.
4
278. In Bandura’s study of observational learning, the abbreviation AMIM stands for:
alertness, motivation, intent, monetary reward
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
achievement, momentum, initiative, memory
achievement, motivation, intellectual capacity, memory
achievement, motivation, memory, imitation.
——> attention, memory, imitation, motivation
5
279. Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a (an):________.
UCR
CS
CR
——> UCS
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
NS
4
280. As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor’s coat, she started to cry. This is an example of:
instrumental learning
——> classical conditioning
habituation
observational learning
operant conditioning
2
281. The communication between honeybees would not be classified as language because ____________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
bees are not animals
——> bee communication seems to be instinctual
bees do not use a spoken or auditory communication system
all of these
none of these
2
282. At the current time, which statement is true about our knowledge of whether animals can use humanlike language?
It has been clearly shown that animals cannot use humanlike language.
All animal communication is instinctual and, thus, is not language.
Only primates, like monkeys and chimps, show any sign of language-like behavior.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Only mammals have the potential to develop language that will be recognizable as humanlike.
——> It is still unclear if animals can show humanlike language at any level of development.
5
283. The system of rules that governs how we combine words to form grammatical sentences is called ______.
——> syntax
semantics
morphology
phonology
grammar
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
284. Dolphins, according to TV and movies, are very intelligent and have strong language abilities. They might even be able to talk! However, which statement is true from the research?
Dolphins have been shown to be able to master syntax.
Dolphins have the language abilities of a 3-year-old child.
Dolphin communication with parrots has been firmly established.
all of these
——> none of these
5
285. What are the smallest units of meaning in a language?
words
syntax
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
syllables
phonemes
——> morphemes
5
286. You are worried that your aging father might develop senile dementia. What advice might you want to give to him?
“Stop reading, as it will tire out your brain.”
“Start a program of extreme physical exercise to push more blood through your brain.”
——> “Start reading more, doing puzzles, getting involved in a hobby to exercise your brain.”
Each of these activities has the potential to help slow the development of dementia.
Nothing will help, so don’t bother to suggest anything.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
287. Pragmatics are defined as _____________.
——> the practical aspects of communicating with others, or the social “niceties” of language
the system of rules that governs how we combine words to form grammatical sentences
the language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language
the language rules used to solve problems between people
the system of rules that governs the structure and use of a language
1
288. Which developmental psychologist theorized that concepts preceded and aided the development of language?
Vygotsky
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Piaget
Sapir
Whorf
Chomsky
2
289. A famous lecturer argues that because the Hopi Indians have only two nouns for things that fly, one for birds and another for nonbirds, the Hopi MUST interpret all flying things in terms of these two nouns. This argument is based on ______.
the idealized prototype construct
bottom-up processing
top-down processing
deep structure elaboration
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> the linguistic relativity hypothesis
5
290. Let’s say we could teach a dolphin to understand the difference between the sentences “The parrot kissed the dolphin” and “The dolphin kissed the parrot.” If this were demonstrated, it might mean the dolphin had an understanding of ____________.
phonemes
morphemes
——> syntax
all of these
none of these
3
291. The greatest threat to the credibility of children’s recollections of sexual abuse is posed by
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
proactive interference
the spacing effect
——> the misinformation effect
long-term potentiation
retroactive interference
3
292. Speed-reading complex information produces little long-term retention because it inhibits
the next-in-line effect
the serial position effect
retroactive interference
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
proactive interference
——> rehearsal
5
293. Sophia remembered the order of the lobes in the brain from the front by recalling the sentence, “Furry Platypus Often Tremble.” For Sophia, this is a
chunking strategy
——> mnemonic device
peg-word system
conditioned stimulus
effortful processor
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
294. The temporary release of stress hormones into the bloodstream facilitates
memory reconstruction
repression
retrograde amnesia
retroactive interference.
——> long-term potentiation
5
295. The ability to perform more than one complex encoding tasks simultaneously demonstrates the importance of
effortful processing
——> automatic processing
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
mood congruent memory
flashbulb memory
working memory
2
296. The conscious repetition of information in order to maintain it in long-term memory is called
automatic processing
——> rehearsal
spacing
chunking
mnemonic
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
297. Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds we either first wake up or just before we fall is most likely due to
motivated forgetting
retrieval failure
retroactive interference
——> encoding failure
proactive interference
4
298. After hearing his puppy yelp, for a moment after, Mr. Wright has a vivid auditory memory of the puppy’s high pitch bark. Mr. Wright’s experience clearly demonstrates ____________ memory.
long-term
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
short-term
iconic
implicit
——> echoic
5
299. David read a list of 40 vocabulary words only once. When recalling the words, David shows the serial position effect. We expect that the words David remembers three days later are
——> at the beginning of the list
in the middle of the list
distributed throughout the list
the easiest words
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
unpredictable
1
300. In order to remember to buy sausage, ham, onions, and parsley for his pasta sauce, Enzo forms the word “shop” with the first letter of each item. Enzo is using a memory aide known as
the method of loci
the next-in-line effect
the serial position effect
——> chunking
imagery
4
301. The process of getting information out of memory storage is called
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
priming
encoding
relearning
——> retrieval
rehearsal
4
302. A telephone number for a new upscale restaurant flashes on the movie screen, but the image disappears before Aaron has the opportunity to write it down. To his surprise, Aaron retains a momentary mental image of the last four digits of the number. Aaron’s experience demonstrates __________ memory.
echoic
——> iconic
implicit
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
explicit
short-term
2
303. Which test of memory typically provides the fewest retrieval cues?
rehearsal
aptitude
recognition
——> recall
repression
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
304. Remembering how to solve a problem without any conscious recollection best illustrates _________ memory.
short-term
flashbulb
iconic
sensory
——> implicit
5
305. When 90-year-old Grace looked at her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of her husband, and the early years of her marriage. The pictures served as powerful
encoding devices
iconic memories
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
memory devices
automatic processing devices
——> retrieval cues
5
306. A mnemonic device is a
mental picture
measure of memory
technique used for encoding language sounds
——> memory aid
word, event, or place that triggers a memory of the past
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
307. Sally is enrolled in a high school geometry course, which she describes as “drawing figures and figuring drawings.” In a typical class, students draw geometric figures and use a formula to calculate an aspect of the figure, such as its area. Each time Sally uses a formula, she is making use of what psychologists call ___________.
heuristics
logarithms
——> algorithms
convergence
chunking
3
308. A seemingly arbitrary flash “out of the blue,” through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you “figured it out,” is called ______.
brainstorming
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
priming
transformation
a mental set
——> insight
5
309. PET scans have demonstrated that when you are creating a visual image, ____________.
the image is generated by the retinal ganglion cells and sent to the cortex
the image is generated by the thalamus and sent to the brain
the image is generated by the hypothalamus and sent to the brain
there is no locus in the brain that can be determined for the generation of visual images
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> the visual cortex is activated during the formation of an image
5
310. In problem solving, the term rule of thumb refers to ______________.
——> heuristics
algorithms
mnemonic devices
cognitive shortcuts
means-end solutions
1
311. Kohler demonstrated “Aha!” or insight behavior with ______________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
birds
dogs
cats
——> chimps
rats
4
312. Seventy percent of the students in a classroom are women and 30 percent are men. One student is described as ambitious, athletic, and assertive. Why are most people likely to think this description refers to a male student?
They are using the availability heuristic.
——> They are using the representativeness heuristic.
People seek only confirming information.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
People tend to make relative comparisons.
People usually have clear insights into the behavior of others.
2
313. ___________ thinking works pretty well for routine problem solving, but may be of little use when a more creative solution is needed.
Heuristic
Divergent
Insightful
Latent
——> Convergent
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
314. The divergent thinking technique of writing down everything that comes to mind about a topic without revising or proofreading until all of the information is recorded and then organizing it later is known as _____________.
brainstorming
keeping a journal
——> freewriting
mind or subject mapping
ideating
3
315. What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
convergent thinking
attribution bias
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
availability heuristic
representativeness heuristic
——> confirmation bias
5
316. The ability to produce solutions to problems that are unusual, inventive, novel, and appropriate is called ____________.
——> creativity
insight
heuristics
latent learning
convergent thinking
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
317. According to Robert Sternberg, which type of intelligence is least likely to predict success in an academic environment?
analytical intelligence
creative intelligence
——> practical intelligence
general intelligence
none of these
3
318. Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ____________.
verbal and mathematical abilities
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
crystallized and visual-motor abilities
——> general intelligence and specific abilities
analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
crystallized and fluid abilities
3
319. According to Robert Sternberg, _______________ is best described as “street smarts,” or the ability to use information to get along in life. People who have it know how to be tactful, how to manipulate situations to their advantage, and how to use inside information to increase their odds of success.
analytical intelligence
creative intelligence
——> practical intelligence
general intelligence
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
none of these
3
320. Which of these is one of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences?
poetic
digital
creative
——> naturalist
historical
4
321. Alfred Binet designed the first ______ test.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
aptitude
performance-based
perception
vocational
——> intelligence
5
322. What two categories of subtests make up the Wechsler intelligence tests?
——> performance and verbal
objective and subjective
analytical and visual-motor
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
crystallized and visualization
fluid and visualization
1
323. When we consider intelligence, it is important to remember that although _______ sets limits on a child’s potential, it is the _______ that permits that potential to be actualized.
learning; opportunity
opportunity; learning
——> heredity; environment
environment; heredity
opportunity; heredity
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
324. Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?
——> IQ below 70
evidence of brain damage
slower than normal reflexes
onset of deficits prior to age 6
evidence of serious childhood illness
1
325. People are termed gifted in terms of intelligence if their IQ is above _______.
115
120
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> 130
140
150
3
326. Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?
——> adaptive behavior severely below a level appropriate for the person’s age
evidence of brain damage
slower than normal reflexes
onset of deficits prior to age 6
evidence of serious childhood illness
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
327. A test is said to be reliable if _________________.
——> a person’s score on a test is pretty much the same every time he or she takes it
it contains an adequate sample of the skills it is supposed to measure
its results agree with a more direct measure of what the test is designed to predict
it is culture-fair
it permits a person to project unconscious wishes based on the test stimuli
1
328. Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be __________.
valid
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
normed
——> reliable
standardized
projective
3
329. Extrinsic motivation is defined as ________.
the pursuit of an activity for its own sake
the pursuit of an activity in order to increase one’s competence and skills
——> the pursuit of an activity for external reward
the pursuit of an activity to relieve the state of tension caused by deprivation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
330. What do we call biologically determined, innate patterns of behavior?
——> instincts
drives
releasing behaviors
universal behaviors
1
331. The tendency of the body to maintain a steady state of functioning is called ________.
stability
equilibrium
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> homeostasis
physiological balance
3
332. The process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met is called ________.
emotion
——> motivation
achievement
synergy
2
333. Lester has high test anxiety, which tends to affect his test performance even though he studies a lot. According to the Yerkes-Dodson Law, which of the following activities will help Lester improve his performance?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Study harder.
Study less since his performance won’t be that good anyway.
Get a tutor.
——> Use relaxation exercises before each test.
4
334. Which of the following factors is most likely to have an effect on predictions made by the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
gender of person doing the task
age of person doing the task
task instructions
——> difficulty of task
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
335. The need for ________ involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals.
emotion
power
motivation
——> achievement
4
336. Luc said, “I don’t care what I do as long as I am the best at it!” What need is this?
need for power
——> need for achievement
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
need for sex
need for affiliation
2
337. Which of the following behaviors is NOT an example of drive-reduction theory?
going to sleep when you are tired
getting some food when you are hungry
getting something to drink when you are thirsty
——> going jogging when you are bored
4
338. Salmon swimming upstream to spawn is an example of animals behaving according to ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
motives
incentives
needs
——> instinct
4
339. Which of the following shows a focus on the lowest of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
Frank feels that he is a good salesman because he likes what he does and knows how to do it well.
Barbara knows that as a teacher she is a good person because she realizes the importance of imparting knowledge to society.
Joan wants to live in a house with all the modern conveniences so that she may have more time to seek fulfillment from her career and family.
——> Mark works hard as an attorney only so that he can attract more clients, more money, and be secure in the knowledge that his family can survive.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
340. Jill is motivated by money and the things money will bring her. Jack is motivated by a belief in the importance of doing good things, and his incentives are based on that belief. Which theory incorporates both these types of motivational causes?
increment theory
sensation-seeking theory
entity theory
——> expectancy-value theory
4
341. Michael has trained very long hours in order to qualify for the Olympics in diving. He has sacrificed a great deal as he put his education on hold and spent a lot of time away from his 2 small children and wife. To Michael, qualifying for the Olympics is a(n) ________.
stimuli
optimum level
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> incentive
Drive reduction
3
342. Self-determination theory (SDT) best fits which type of motivation?
a mastery goal
the need for affiliation
extrinsic motivation
——> intrinsic motivation
4
343. According to Maslow, the motive of self-actualization makes one want ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> to fulfill one’s inborn potential
to convince others of one’s true worth
to have frequent contact with others
to possess as many material goods as possible
1
344. Obesity is defined as the condition of being at least ________ percent over the ideal body weight.
10
40
30
——> 20
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
345. Intrinsic motivation is one that propels a person to pursue an activity ________.
——> for its own sake
to relieve the state of tension caused by deprivation
for external rewards
in order to be judged favorably by others
1
346. People who are attempting to become extremely thin by refusing to eat suffer from ________.
obesity phobia
——> anorexia nervosa
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
dissociation
bulimia nervosa
2
347. Although Kim just ate a huge meal and feels “stuffed,” the idea of a chocolate sundae is too good to pass up, so she orders one. Which motivational term explains the appeal of the sundae?
stimuli
optimum level
——> incentive
Drive reduction
3
348. The highest rate of obesity in the world is found in ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Germany
France
Sweden
——> the United States
4
349. ________ can vary from culture to culture and are socially acceptable ways of showing emotion in public settings.
——> Display rules
Expressional norms
Facial grids
Phenomes
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
350. Which division of the nervous system is working when we experience emotions?
parasympathetic division of the somatic nervous system
nonsympathetic division of the nervous system
central nervous system
——> sympathetic division of the nervous system
4
351. Seeing a snake, and then simultaneously running away from it and becoming frightened, is the sequence of events postulated by ________ theory.
Plutchik’s
James-Lange
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Cannon-Bard theory
Schachter and Singer’s
3
352. Seeing a snake, running away from it, and then becoming frightened is the sequence of events postulated by the ________ theory.
Yerkes-Dodson
——> James-Lange
Plutchik
Cannon-Bard
2
353. What is the correct sequence of events in emotional response according to the Cannon-Bard theory?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> stimulus THEN emotion AND physiological changes (simultaneous)
stimulus THEN physiological changes THEN emotion
stimulus THEN emotion THEN physiological changes
You experience physiological changes followed by fear.
1
354. Which theory of emotion emphasizes the role of the thalamus?
Plutchik’s
James-Lange
——> Cannon-Bard theory
Schachter and Singer’s
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
355. One of the problems associated with asthma is that once patients experience difficulty breathing, they often make their symptoms worse by concentrating on them and/or worrying about them. Consequently, many doctors include relaxation exercises as part of a treatment program to prevent patients from making their asthmatic reactions worse. This example of how our awareness of physiological changes can influence or even cause subsequent emotions is most supportive of which of the following theories of emotion?
Yerkes-Dodson
——> James-Lange
Plutchik
Cannon-Bard
2
356. According to cognitive-mediational theories, appraisal of the situation would come ________ the physical arousal and ________ the experience of emotion.
——> before; before
after; after
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
after; before
before; after
1
357. According to Ekman, which of the following is NOT one of the universal facial expressions?
fear
——> shame
disgust
sadness
2
358. The process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed is called ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
internal emotion work
body language
primary emotional processing
——> facial feedback
4
359. Those who view their work as a necessary but personally unfulfilling way to make money are said to view work as a:
flow
contract
——> job
calling
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
career
3
360. In Myer’s book, The Pursuit of Happiness, all of the following are suggestions for living a happier life EXCEPT ________.
focus beyond yourself
——> follow the “Eye for an Eye” philosophy when seeking revenge
act happy
take control of your time
think happy
2
361. Ainsley is more fearful of loneliness than of remaining in a physically abusive relationship with her husband. This best illustrates the potentially harmful impact of _________ needs.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
self-actualization
achievement
——> belongingness
sexual
safety
3
362. Jean Piaget is noted for his theory of ______.
——> cognitive development
perceptual development
language development
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
motor development
reflex development
1
363. According to Myer and colleagues, in happiness is the key to many things EXCEPT ________.
a healthier and more satisfying life
——> changing others who are unhappy
perception of the world as a safer place
ability to make decisions more easily
ability to feel safe and secure
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
364. Dr. Lighthead works with her patients to draw from many of their strengths and successes in her therapy sessions. She often stresses the importance of achievements, strengths, and well-being while not dwelling on past issues of abuse, depression, and unmet goals. Based on the description of her work, Dr. Lighthead is likely to utilize ________ in her sessions.
transient psychology
structural psychology
optimist psychology
performance psychology
——> positive psychology
5
365. In the definition of psychology, what does the term mental processes refer to?
——> internal, covert processes
outward behavior
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
inward feelings
overt actions and reactions
only animal behavior
1
366. The central nervous system consists of
sensory and motor neurons
somatic and autonomic subsystems
——> the brain and the spinal cord
sympathetic and parasympathetic branches
afferent and efferent neurons
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
367. In a complete sexual response cycle
the excitement phase immediately precedes orgasm
orgasm immediately precedes the excitement phase
——> the plateau phase immediately precedes orgasm
the excitement phase immediately precedes the resolution phase
the plateau phase immediately precedes the excitement phase
3
368. As part of an application for a job, Dan is asked to complete some psychological tests, including one in which he responds true or false to items such as “I feel sad most of the time,” or “I had a good childhood.” What type of psychological test is Dan taking?
a behavioral log
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the TAT
a projective test
——> an inventory
a direct observation
4
369. Interviews in which the interviewer asks questions about any material that comes up and asks follow-up questions whenever appropriate are known as ______ interviews.
structured
global
wide-focus
closed-end
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> unstructured
5
370. When Anna looks at some modern artwork at the museum, she often thinks she sees human figures or faces and likes to make up stories about them. When she tells the stories to her friend, her friend says that the stories reflect Anna’s unconscious thoughts. In psychological terms, what Anna does is most similar to ______.
classical conditioning
——> a projective test
behavior sampling
an objective test
social cognition
2
371. The ________ classifies people’s personality according to Carl Jung’s personality types.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
TAT
MMPI
Locus of Control Scale
Kagan Temperament Scale
1
372. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is an example of a _________ personality test.
projective
——> objective
subjective
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
creative
strategic
2
373. Which of the following statements is a claim often made by critics of projective testing?
——> The interpretation of projective tests is too subjective.
These tests are effective in predicting job performance.
People try to answer questions in ways that make them look better than they are.
These tests create anxiety in those being tested.
The results of projective tests reflect situational behavior.
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
374. An assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior(s) that is/are listed on the assessment is called a ____________.
——> rating scale
frequency count
projective test
interview
count
1
375. The most commonly used personality assessments are:
projective tests
observations
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
structured interviews
——> self-report inventories
behavior assessments
4
376. In 1921, Hermann Rorschach introduced a personality assessment that has become one of the most widely used ________ test.
factor analysis
——> projective
thematic apperception
empirically derived
personality inventory
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
377. The main advantage of personality inventories over projective tests and interviews is _____________.
——> inventories are standardized.
interviews are more reliable.
interviews have higher validity.
interviews are more indirect.
there are no major differences.
1
378. Personality assessments conducted by behaviorists rely primarily on ____________.
projective tests
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> direct observation
detailed analysis of dreams
interviews
hypothetical situations
2
379. Personality assessments conducted by behaviorists sometimes make use of _______.
projective tests
introjective tests
reports by friends
responses to hypothetical situations
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> rating scales and frequency counts
5
380. Mr. Kocin was asked by this psychotherapist to look at a few ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Kocin was most likely taking the:
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
MMPI.
Rorschach test.
——> TAT.
Personality Inventory.
4
381. In studying personality, Mr. Palinato, a trait theorist, would most likely:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
use a projective test.
observe a person in a variety of life situations.
use free association.
use factor analysis.
——> use a personality inventory.
5
382. Which personality test relies on the interpretation of inkblots to understand personality?
MMPI
16PF
TAT
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
NEO-PI
——> Rorschach
5
383. The Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) is an example of which type of personality test?
——> objective
subjective
strategic
projective
deviant
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
384. A “lie scale” or validity scale that assesses the extent in which a person is faking to make a good impression is included in the:
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Rorschach inkblot test
TAT
——> MMPI
Locus of Control Scale
4
385. What is the MMPI?
a self-report personality inventory
a test designed for people with a psychological disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
an objective personality test
——> all of the above
none of the above
4
386. What is one criticism of projective tests?
They are inappropriate for use with children.
They are too simple in their administration and scoring.
——> They have low validity and reliability.
They fail to take into account differences in the testing environments.
They have interpretive categories that are too narrow.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
387. While taking the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Vince notices that it contains certain questions that are asked several times in different ways. He asks his daughter, who is a graduate student in psychology, why that is. What is his daughter likely to say?
Truly psychotic individuals expect to find “strange” items on tests.
Those items contain hidden content that is not apparent to normal people.
——> Some items are used to determine if test takers are trying to “fake” the test by not reading.
The MMPI contains a number of experimental items that are used in developing future versions of the test.
These items correspond to items on other tests so that scores on different tests can be compared.
3
388. The technique of assessing personality by asking a person to make up a story based on a picture presented by the researcher is an example of which of the following types of tests?
personality inventory
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> projective
sublimation
individualism
trait/type
2
389. One major reason for the unreliability of the Rorschach inkblot test or other projective tests is the fact that:
the test can only be used effectively with severely maladjusted individuals.
the test cannot discriminate between those who may have suicidal and those who just suffer depression.
the test does not allow for a truthful conversation between patient and therapist.
——> psychologists often do not agree on how to score the results of the test.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the test does not take perceptions of patients into account.
4
390. Frank and Gina are looking at an abstract painting in a museum. Gina describes objects and people she thinks she sees in the painting. Frank says, “It’s a bunch of paint thrown on a canvas.” Gina responds, “No, there is so much here that you just don’t see.” During lunch they agree that their experience reminds them of what concept they learned in introductory psychology?
social cognition
trait theory
——> projective testing
the Big Five
objective testing
3
391. Teresa is taking a personality test that involves her describing random patterns of dots. Teresa is taking which type of personality test?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the MMPI
the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
——> a projective test
Factor analysis
a personality inventory
3
392. Ethan is usually talkative and animated when hanging out with his girlfriend, but reserved at home. He actively participates in many classroom discussions in Social Studies but frequently seems to talk with friends at the gym. Ethan’s behavior should lead us to question the importance of:
self-esteem
reciprocal determinism
defense mechanisms
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> personality traits
unconditional positive regard
4
393. Which of the following concepts did Carl Jung originate?
id
superego
castration anxiety
——> introversion-extraversion
inferiority complex
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
394. Self-esteem would be most associated with which of the following perspectives?
Psychodynamic
Trait
Social-cognitive
——> Humanistic
Behavioral
4
395. Although David seems bright and capable to his parents and friends, he has been failing in school. David agrees to speak with a psychologist, who after taking a personality inventory, suggests that his problems stem from internal processes such as unrealistic expectations and negative thinking. The psychologist’s view is typical of which of the following models of personality?
Psychoanalytic
Humanistic
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Social-cognitive
Behavioral
Trait
3
396. For her class presentation, Amanda intends to discuss the Big Five personality factors used by people throughout the world to describe themselves. Which of the following factors will Amanda not discuss in her presentation?
openness
conscientiousness
——> independence
extraversion
agreeableness
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
397. What must a person have in order to overcome a sense of helplessness that is associated with the repeated occurrence of negative events?
——> personal control
learned helplessness
introspection
reciprocal determinism
external locus of control
1
398. A psychologist at a community college administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. Which test did the psychologist most likely administer?
the Rorschach
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the TAT
the DMVD
——> the MMPI
the locus of control life test
4
399. Recent research on the Big Five personality factors provides evidence that:
some traits on describe personality in Western cultures.
——> some tendencies decrease during adulthood, while others increase.
the heritability of these traits runs less than 25 percent.
all of the above are true.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
none of the above are true.
2
400. Having an attitude of learned helplessness is most likely to promote:
an internal locus of control
unconditional positive regard
——> pessimism
optimism
self-actualization
3
401. Andrew’s grandfather, who has lived a rich and productive life, is a spontaneous, loving, and self-accepting person. Maslow may say that Andrew’s grandfather:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
has an internal locus of control.
is an extravert.
has resolved all the conflicts of the psychosexual stages.
——> is a self-actualized person.
all of the above.
4
402. Jacob had the desire and potential to be a pianist but became, instead, a trader in commodities. He decided never to touch the piano again. According to Maslow, what is going on with Jacob?
He suffers from incontinence.
He suffers from Womb Envy.
He has an inferiority complex.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
He has an internal locus of control.
——> He has not achieved self-actualization.
5
403. Bandura believes that the most well-adjusted people have a strong sense of _________, a sense of competence in managing one’s life, and mastery in achieving pone’s personal goals.
self-esteem
——> self-efficacy
self-loathing
self-importance
external locus of control
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
404. Individuals with a high self-esteem are more likely to ___________ than those with a low self-esteem.
associate with people who share the same attitudes as them
question their beliefs
dismiss positive and flattering descriptions of themselves
experience an external locus of control
——> have a strong ego
5
405. Maslow proposed that people who are self-actualized have exceptionally healthy personalities. Which of the following, according to Maslow, are NOT representative of self-actualized people?
spontaneous
——> extreme in personality (e.g., either conforming or rebellious)
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
thrive on their work
not dependant on others for approval
comfortable being alone
2
406. Aiden’s substandard academic performance is both a cause and result of his feelings of academic inferiority. Aiden’s situation best illustrates the importance of:
——> reciprocal determinism
internal locus of control
defense mechanisms
self-serving bias
the spotlight effect
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
407. The Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n):
personality test used to assess locus of control.
personality test used to assess the Big 5.
——> empirically derived and objective personality test.
personality test developed to assess job applicants.
projective personality test.
3
408. In which projective testing method does a subject reveal inner feelings and interests through stories he or she creates about pictures of ambiguous scenes?
MMPI
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Standord-Binet
Myers-Briggs
——> TAT
None of the above
4
409. Bristol believes that the questions on her college exams are unrelated to the course work so therefore, studying is useless. Bristol’s belief most clearly illustrates:
displacement
reaction formation
sublimation
reciprocal determinism
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> an external locus of control
5
410. Carl Rogers emphasized accepting people for what they are, not for what you would like them to be. This acceptance is termed ___________.
unconditional self-worth
unconditional esteem
conditional positive regard
——> unconditional positive regard
conditional self-worth
4
411. According to Carl Rogers, anxiety and neurotic behaviors occur when _______.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
a person has low self-esteem
there is matching between the real self and ideal self
——> there is a discrepancy between the real self and ideal self
the individual receives too much unconditional positive regard
has a poor sense of self-efficacy
3
412. Carl Rogers believed our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics are known as:
self-regard.
personality.
——> self-concept.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
self-efficacy.
internal locus of control.
3
413. Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of:
the spotlight effect.
individualism.
locus of control.
self-serving bias.
——> social influence.
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
414. Because Mrs. Johnston trusts her employees, she treats them very kindly. Her kindness leads them to work diligently on her behalf, which in turn increases her trust in them. According to Bandura, this pattern of trust, kindness, and increasing trust illustrates:
internal locus of control
external locus of control
the spot light effect
learned helplessness
——> reciprocal determinism
5
415. One of the main differences between the psychoanalytic view and the social cognitive view is ________________.
——> the social cognitive view allows for testing, whereas the psychoanalytic view does not
that the mind is more important to the psychoanalyst than the cognitivist
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the psychoanalytic view requires feedback from clients and the social cognitive view does not
the social cognitive view is more abstract than the psychoanalytic view
the social cognitive view relies more on unconscious processes than the psychoanalytic view
1
416. Albert Bandura’s notion that people are affected by their environment but can also influence that environment is known as __________.
self-efficacy
locus of control
phenomenology
self-actualization
——> reciprocal determinism
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
5
417. According to Rogers, which of the following people is MOST likely to become a fully functioning person?
someone with a strongly developed superego
someone with an extraverted personality
someone brought up with conditional positive regard
——> someone brought up with unconditional positive regard
someone with a strong sense of self-efficacy
4
418. A baseball player’s son is quite talented; he has received lots of awards over the years. When he gets up to bat, he expects to get a hit, and when he is in the field, he expects to make every catch. According to Bandura, what characteristic does this young man seem to have?
self-regard
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
self-centeredness
——> self-efficacy
self-actualization
self-worth
3
419. Which of the following concepts is NOT found in the humanistic perspective of personality?
self-actualization
each person is unique
personal freedom of choice
subjective motivation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> self-efficacy
5
420. Gracie believes that she will be highly successful in college if she works hard and carefully manages her time in her senior year of high school. Her belief best illustrates:
personal freedom
self-actualization
reaction formation
reciprocal determinism
——> internal locus of control
5
421. A famous psychologist argues that there are three factors that influence personality: environment, person, and behavior. This psychologist is most likely a ______ psychologist.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
psychodynamic
——> social cognitive
psychoanalytic
trait
humanistic
2
422. What do Abraham Maslow’s and Carl Rogers’s theories have in common?
They are both stage theories.
They focus on unconscious motivation.
——> They believe that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
They both fit in the learning/cognitive perspective.
They both emphasize the role of inherited behaviors throughout history.
3
423. The humanistic perspective has been criticized for :
——> underestimating the inherent human capacity for evil behaviors.
overestimating the effect of an external locus of control.
overestimating the degree of similarity among the human race.
underestimating the inconsistency of human behavior from one situation to another.
overestimating the impact of childhood experiences on personality.
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
424. According to Freud, the id derives pleasure from distinct ___________ during the early psychosexual stages of development.
defense mechanisms
——> erogenous zones
identifications
self concepts
identities
2
425. Erica is unconsciously fearful she did not get accepted into the college of her dreams. Recently when asked, she refused to say she wanted to go there because, she said, “I would much rather stay closer to home and go to the community college.” Erica’s comment best illustrates:
regression
repression
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> rationalization
displacement
projection
3
426. According to Freud, the unconscious is:
——> the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are unaware.
part of personality that does not affect behavior.
a set of universal concepts acquired by humans from our past.
a center of deeply repressed memories that has no impact on behavior.
all of the above
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
427. Jill is an 8-year-old girl who is having a birthday party. According to Freud, since Jill is in the latency period, whom would you expect to be at her party?
——> mostly girls
mostly boys
mostly male parents who look like her father
mostly female parents who look like her mother
mostly parents
1
428. In Freud’s personality theory, the ________ are in conflict and the _______ must mediate between them.
ego and superego; id
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
id and ego; superego
ego and superego; conscience
id and conscience; superego
——> id and superego; ego
5
429. According to the psychoanalytical perspective of personality, the ______ is responsible for acting on the “reality principle.”
superego
id
——> ego
subconscious
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
preconscious
3
430. The ______ controls the satisfaction of the id’s drives in the external world.
personal unconscious
collective unconscious
superego
persona
——> ego
5
431. Which of the following statements describes the relationship between temperament and personality?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Temperament and personality are the exact same thing.
Personality, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s temperament is built.
——> Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s personality is built.
Temperament refers to negative personal characteristics, while personality refers to positive personal characteristics.
Personality refers to negative personal characteristics, while temperament refers to positive personal characteristics.
3
432. The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels is called __________.
——> personality
nurture
a trait
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
nature
character
1
433. The neo-Freudian, Carl Jung, suggested the existence of a collective unconscious that contains images shared by all people called ______.
schemas
paradigms
prototypes
instincts
——> archetypes
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
434. Freud became interested in the unconscious when he noticed that certain symptoms in his patients:
could not be removed by the means of medication.
could not be removed by the means of hypnosis.
——> could not be explained in terms of neurological impairments.
resulted from a loss of internal locus of control.
resulted from learned helplessness.
3
435. In Sigmund Freud’s theory, the _______ operates according to the pleasure principle.
——> id
ego
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
thanatos
superego
ego ideal
1
436. According to Karen Horney, men had __________.
penis envy
breast envy
——> womb envy
birthing envy
estrogen envy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
437. According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the:
id, ego, and superego to solve conflicts.
superego to prevent aggressive drives and impulses.
——> ego to prevent threatening impulses and drives from being consciously recognized.
id to defend against guilty feelings produced by the superego.
ego to defend against guilty feelings produced by the superego and id.
3
438. Carl Jung’s term for the part of our personality that Freud referred to as the unconscious was the _____________.
——> personal unconscious
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
archetype
collective unconscious
animus
animas
1
439. Freud’s theory of personality has been criticized because it:
——> offers few testable predictions that allow one to determine its validity.
is reliant upon observations derived from Freud’s use of projective tests.
is contradicted by research demonstrating the human’s ability for destruction.
underestimates the importance of biological influences in personality development.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
none of the above.
1
440. Which of Freud’s levels of consciousness consists of thoughts and feelings that can be easily brought into immediate awareness?
conscious level
unconscious level
——> preconscious level
postconscious level
manifest level
3
441. Jessie becomes furious when her favorite hockey player is intentionally hurt by an opponent. According to Freud’s model of the mind, her id would unconsciously say _________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
“Thou shalt not kill.”
“I’m going to create an action plan!”
“What, me angry? I never get angry!”
“I’m going to leave this game right now!”
——> “I’m so angry I could kill that player!”
5
442. When two-year old Lily was told she would not get ice-cream until she finished her dinner, she threw her plate onto the floor while having a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Lily was unable to resist the demands of her:
ego.
——> id.
superego.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
collective unconscious.
self-concept.
2
443. When eighteen year old Aaron received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase a sports car. Aaron decided, instead, to deposit his inheritance into an investment account for his college education. Aaron demonstrates a:
weak id.
strong id.
——> strong ego.
strong external locus of control.
weak internal locus of control.
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
444. Many have compared Freud’s idea of the mind to an iceberg. If that were the case and you were standing on the deck of a ship in Alaska, what part of the mind would you see above the water?
——> ego
superego
id
preconscious
anteroconscious
1
445. Addison is extremely gullible and accepts just about anything she is told as the truth. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Addison is most likely fixated in the ___________ stage.
genital
latency
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
phallic
anal
——> oral
5
446. While Dr. Mitchell was going through a painful divorce, she tended to create unnecessarily difficult exams and gave students low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professor’s treatment of students as an example of:
regression.
repression.
projection.
——> displacement.
reaction formation.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
447. According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the ______.
anal stage
genital stage
oral stage
latency stage
——> phallic stage
5
448. A psychoanalyst would say that parents who disguise hostility toward their children by being overly protective are most likely using the defense mechanism of:
projection
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
regression
——> reaction formation
repression
displacement
3
449. According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, rationality as well as logical thinking and reasoning are controlled by our ______.
pleasure principle
superego
id
——> ego
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
preconscious
4
450. Reaction formation refers to the process by which people:
offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for action.
retreat to behavior patterns characteristic in early stages of development.
——> consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious thoughts.
disguise unacceptable unconscious desires and impulses by attributing them to others.
express and treat others with anger and hostility because of unconscious conflicts.
3
451. According to the Big Five trait dimensions, _____________ is most closely related to one’s level of creativity.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> openness
conscientiousness
extraversion
agreeableness
neuroticism
1
452. Sasha is quiet, anxious, pessimistic, and moody. In terms of the Eysenck’s basic personality dimensions, Sasha would be described as:
passive-aggressive
external-dependent
internal-dependent
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
internal-impulsive
——> unstable-introverted
5
453. Cattell believed there were underlying traits that direct surface traits. He called these traits:
——> source traits
secondary traits
subordinate traits
background traits
primary traits
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
454. An individual who is disorganized and careless would most likely score low on the Big Five trait dimension known as:
extraversion.
openness.
agreeableness.
——> conscientiousness.
emotional stability.
4
455. Paul is considered to be warm, friendly, and considerate. He loves to tell jokes at soccer practice and is always a team player. On which of the two Big Five traits, would Paul be expected to obtain a high scores?
conscientiousness and extraversion
openness and neuroticism
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
extraversion and neuroticism
openness and conscientiousness
——> agreeableness and extraversion
5
456. Travis is a participant in the x-games every year, which features events that are high flying and exhilarating to watch or participate in, but also very dangerous to the competitors. Because Travis is willing to take chances with his health to get the adrenaline rush from these sorts of events, Cost and McCrae would argue that he ranks high on which of the five factors?
——> openness
neuroticism
conscientiousness
extraversion
agreeableness
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
457. Which one of the goals of psychology would be most relevant in the trait perspective?
——> description
explanation
maintenance
control
changing
1
458. Trait theorists are more focused on _______ personality rather than ______ it.
interpreting; observing
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
interpreting; analyzing
——> describing; explaining
predicting; assessing
predicting; changing
3
459. What did Gordon Allport think about traits?
He thought they were like stages.
——> He thought they were wired into the nervous system.
He thought they were learned.
He thought they were the result of cognitive modeling.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
He thought they were the result of observation and imitation.
2
460. Which neurotransmitter is not implicated in the development of mood disorders?
serotonin
dopamine
——> endorphins
norepinephrine
estrogen
3
461. According to family, twin, and adoption studies, a person is at greatest risk for developing schizophrenia ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
if he or she has a nonidentical twin diagnosed with the disorder
——> if he or she has an identical twin diagnosed with the disorder
if he or she has a biological parent diagnosed with the disorder
if he or she has an adoptive parent diagnosed with the disorder
if he or she has 2 adoptive grandparents with the disorder
2
462. In which disorder does a person seem to experience at least two or more distinct personalities existing in one body?
depersonalization
the fugue
schizophrenia
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
panic disorder
——> dissociative identity disorder
5
463. Marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. He wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. Marty is suffering from ________ personality disorder.
antisocial
——> borderline
avoidant
dependent
paranoid
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
464. Which of the following is the biological explanation for mood disorders?
They are a result of distortions in thinking.
They are a result of learned helplessness.
They are a result of anger turned inward on oneself.
They are a result of overbearing parents.
——> They are a result of an imbalance of brain chemicals.
5
465. A dissociative disorder characterized by a partial or complete loss of memory for personal information that is usually associated with a stressful or emotionally traumatic experience is known as ________.
dissociative fugue
dissociative identity disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
depersonalization disorder
——> dissociative amnesia
dissociation hypertension
4
466. Which of the following is FALSE regarding the causes of antisocial personality disorder?
Close biological relatives of people with this disorder are more likely to be diagnosed than those who are not related.
——> There is a greater risk of antisocial personality disorder in relatives of people with schizotypal personality disorder.
People with antisocial personality disorder are more likely to have experienced disturbances in family relationships and communication.
Lower than normal levels of stress hormones are linked to emotional unresponsiveness to stressful or threatening situations.
Higher than normal levels of stress neurotransmitters are linked to over active responsiveness to emotional situations.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
467. ________ is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.
——> The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Textbook of Psychological Disorders
The Physician’s Desk Reference
The Textbook of Physiological Disorders
The Physiatrist’s Diagnostic Science Manual (PDSM)
1
468. Mary is an adolescent who currently has a small pimple on her cheek that is causing her to be overly self-conscious. She is convinced that everyone she meets stares at and talks about her pimple. Mary’s behavior exhibits ________.
a sense of idealism
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
personal fable
puberty
menarche
——> imaginary audience
5
469. Which of the following is defined as a gene that controls the appearance of a certain trait?
recessive
recombinant
mutated
tardive
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> dominant
5
470. Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?
——> Learning is another word for “maturation.”
Learning is relatively permanent.
Learning involves experiences.
Learning involves practice
Learning involves changes in behavior.
1
471. While taking the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Vince notices that it contains certain questions that are asked several times in different ways. He asks his daughter, who is a graduate student in psychology, why that is. What is his daughter likely to say?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
The MMPI contains a number of experimental items that are used in developing future versions of the test.
Truly psychotic individuals expect to find “strange” items on tests.
——> Some items are used to determine if test takers are trying to “fake” the test by not reading.
Those items contain hidden content that is not apparent to normal people.
Those items contain subliminal information that they do not see.
3
472. A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers’ responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used?
naturalistic observation, survey, experiment
experiment, correlation, bias
experiment, case study, survey
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> case study, survey, experiment
correlation, case study, experiment
4
473. You train your dog, Milo, to salivate at the sound of a bell. Then you ring the bell every five minutes and don’t follow the ringing with food for Milo. He salivates less and less and finally stops salivating at all when the bell rings. But the next morning, when you ring the bell, Milo salivates! What term is used to explain the reappearance of this response?
stimulus discrimination
——> spontaneous recovery
instinctive drift
counterconditioning
extinction
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
474. Laurie, a 30-year-old homemaker, has delusions and hallucinations, often acts silly, giggles loudly and inappropriately, makes odd gestures, and does not bathe or change her clothes regularly. Her symptoms indicate she is suffering from ________ schizophrenia.
paranoid
undifferentiated
catatonic
residual
——> disorganized
5
475. Darcy is sitting at her desk in her office one day when, without warning, her heart begins racing rapidly, she has a sensation of being “out of her body,” and she experiences dulled vision and hearing, rapid breathing, and sweating. She thinks she is having a heart attack. Nothing she is doing seems to have caused such an episode. Her symptoms MOST resemble ________.
a compulsion
——> a panic attack
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
a phobia
affective disorder
a ritual
2
476. Which of the following is a condition in which a person shows little or no emotion?
hallucinations
delusions
——> flat affect
appropriate affect
inappropriate affect
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
477. Luke is diagnosed with a somatoform disorder. His therapist believes that his disorder is reinforced by his family, his doctors, and by his ability to avoid stressful situations that are associated with his disorder. Luke’s therapist is probably a ________.
——> behaviorist
psychoanalyst
cognitive psychologist
biological psychologist
neuropsychologist
1
478. The treatment recommended for a patient at the mental health clinic is phototherapy. What is the likely diagnosis?
dysthymic disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
panic disorder
——> seasonal affective disorder
bipolar disorder
anxiety disorder
3
479. Dr. Nwoambi is a psychologist who is currently evaluating a new client. Dr. Nwoambi would most likely refer to the ________ to assist her in diagnosing her client’s psychological disorder.
——> The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Textbook of Psychological Disorders
The Physician’s Desk Reference
The Textbook of Physiological Disorders
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
The Psychiatrist’s Diagnostic Science Manual (PDSM)
1
480. Which of the following is the term used to describe a sudden onset of extreme panic with various symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, and sweating?
compulsion
——> panic attack
phobia
affective disorder
ritual
2
481. When Bob noticed a pain in his thigh, he was convinced it was a sign of bone cancer. Although x-rays revealed no sign of cancer, Bob sought the opinions of a dozen other physicians who agreed with the original opinion. What psychological disorder might Bob’s behavior indicate?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
conversion disorder
mood disorder
catatonic schizophrenia
——> hypochondriasis
depersonalization disorder
4
482. A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between ________.
anxiety and mania
——> depression and manic episodes
depression and schizophrenia
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
mania and schizophrenia
anxiety and schizophrenia
2
483. People who have a(n) ________ are afraid of being evaluated in some negative way by others, so they tend to avoid situations that can be embarrassing.
specific phobia
interactive phobia
agoraphobia
——> social phobia
generalized phobia
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
484. Which of the following best describes dysthymia?
a form of depression that affects biological functions such as appetite
a severe, intermittent form of depression
a form of depression that is very responsive to electroconvulsive therapy
——> a mild, chronic form of depression
a mild, consistent form of mania
4
485. Intruding thoughts that occur again and again are called ________. Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors are called ________.
impulses; intrusions
compulsions; obsessions
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
instincts; drives
——> obsessions; compulsions
intrusions; impulses
4
486. A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality is likely suffering from _______.
a dissociative disorder
passive-aggressive personality
——> schizophrenia
bipolar disorder
anxiety disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
487. While doing volunteer work at a mental hospital, Mary is put on a ward for adults with severe mental disorders. One patient remains in the same position for hours at a time and never talks. The doctors tell Mary this patient suffers from ________.
disorganized schizophrenia
depersonalization disorder
obsessive-compulsive disorder
——> catatonic schizophrenia
residual schizophrenia
4
488. Joey experienced a great amount of anger throughout his childhood and adolescence that he turned inward rather than expressing to others. As a result of not expressing his anger, which of the following disorders is Joey at risk of developing?
fugue
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
amnesia
anxiety
schizophrenia
——> depression
5
489. A patient in a psychiatric hospital exhibits disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations. This person is probably suffering from ________.
passive-aggressive personality
——> schizophrenia
a dissociative disorder
bipolar disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
anxiety disorder
2
490. A hospital patient was diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia because she was having both delusions and hallucinations. What type of symptoms are these?
a mix of positive and negative
——> positive
negative
indifferent
atypical
2
491. A therapist is interested in helping his client change his disordered behavior. This therapist is most likely to be a/an ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
insight therapist
biomedical therapist
——> action therapist
relationship therapist
physical therapist
3
492. Lulu sees a professional once a month to manage the medication she is taking to help alleviate the symptoms of her anxiety disorder. The type of therapy Lulu is undergoing is called ________.
——> biomedical therapy
physical therapy
psychotherapy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
electroconvulsive shock therapy
lobotomy
1
493. ________ therapies have had considerable success in treating bedwetting, overeating, drug addictions, and phobic reactions.
——> Behavior
Biomedical
Humanistic
Psychoanalytic
REBT
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
494. Dr. Nevolia has a client diagnosed with a somatoform disorder. She believes her client’s disorder is due to a tendency to magnify her symptoms and allow false beliefs to dominate her thinking. Dr. Nevolia is probably a ________.
behaviorist
biological psychologist
——> cognitive psychologist
psychoanalyst
group psychologist
3
495. Which of the following is an advantage of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies?
——> They are less expensive and short term than typical insight therapies.
Clients do not need to be verbal.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
The therapist decides which of the client’s beliefs are rational and which are irrational.
They treat the underlying cause of the problem.
Treats patients with dementia.
1
496. In which form of therapy does the therapist take a directive role, challenging clients when they make “my way or nothing” statements?
psychoanalysis
behavior therapy
——> rational-emotive behavior therapy
person-centered therapy
family therapy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
497. Therapies that focus on the present and assume that people observe the world and the people around them, make assumptions and inferences based on these observations, and then decide how to respond is called ________.
person-centered therapy
——> cognitive-behavioral therapy
behavior therapy
psychoanalysis
Gestalt therapy
2
498. An advantage of group therapy is that it ________.
can only be used alone and not in combination with any other form of therapy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
can be helpful to those who have difficulty speaking in public
can be helpful to individuals who are uncomfortable in social situations
can be helpful to people who are afraid of going outside
——> can provide help to individuals who may be unable to afford individual psychotherapy
5
499. Family counseling is a form of ________ therapy.
organic
informal
self-help
dynamic
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> group
5
500. Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing is primarily used for treatment of ________.
depression
——> post-traumatic stress disorder
schizophrenia
DID
GAD
2
501. Which of the following is an advantage of self-help groups?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> They are free.
They are facilitated by an experienced therapist who is familiar with the group members’ problems.
They are facilitated by a person who is not familiar with the members’ problems.
They provide access to needed medications.
They help individuals one at a time.
1
502. An advantage to group therapy is that groups ________.
allow countertransference to occur
bestow unconditional approval on group members
——> are a source of social support
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
allow an extremely shy person to feel more comfortable speaking up
stop schizophrenic behaviors
3
503. Which approach assumes that disorders come from illogical, irrational cognitions and that changing the thinking patterns to more rational, logical ones will relieve the symptoms of the disorder?
Gestalt
psychodynamic
person-centered
psychoanalytic
——> cognitive-behavioral
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
504. Electroconvulsive therapy has been used successfully to treat ________ that has not responded to other treatments.
obsessive-compulsive disorder
schizophrenia
——> severe depression
bipolar disorder
depersonalization disorder
3
505. A therapist challenges what she sees as her client’s irrational and self-defeating thoughts. Her goal is to help her client change these thoughts into more rational, helpful, positive thoughts. In addition, she wants to help her client develop strategies that can be used to cope with future problems. She is probably a ________ therapist.
Gestalt
psychodynamic
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
person-centered
psychoanalytic
——> cognitive-behavioral
5
506. Which of the following is a disadvantage of group therapy?
It allows the therapist to see how the client interacts with others.
It often allows group members to help one another learn new social skills.
——> The client must share the therapist’s time.
The therapist is the only person to whom secrets are revealed.
The client feels supported by others in the group.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
507. Bilateral cingulotomy has been performed in cases of ________ that have not responded to other therapy techniques.
schizophrenia
antisocial personality disorder
——> major depression
panic disorder
histrionic personality disorder
3
508. The therapist’s feeling of respect and affection for the client that exists without any strings attached, no matter what the client may say or do, is called ________.
——> unconditional positive regard
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
empathy
catharsis
conditions of worth
free association
1
509. Which of the following individuals would be considered a good candidate for humanistic therapy?
Pasha, who is unable to verbally express her thoughts and feelings
——> Lou, who is seeking a career change
Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
Anna, who suffers from schizophrenia
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Mary, who is extremely withdrawn
2
510. Gestalt therapy is an outgrowth of the work of ________.
Lazarus
Rogers
——> Perls
Wolpe
Freud
3
511. Dr. Garcia is treating a patient who has a fear of knives. He believes his patient’s fear is a kind of displacement, in which the phobic object is a symbol of whatever his patient has buried deep inside her unconscious mind. Dr. Garcia’s view is consistent with that of ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the biological perspective
cognitive psychologists
——> the psychodynamic model
behaviorists
the imagery model
3
512. Every time Alice cleans her room properly and makes the bed she receives a marble. When she accumulates 100 marbles, she can get the new video game she wants. What type of behavioral program are Alice’s parents using?
extinction
——> token economy
participant modeling
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
systematic desensitization
schedules of reinforcement
2
513. According to Freud, the ________ of the dream refers to the client’s memory of the things, people, and events in the dream.
——> manifest content
free association
latent content
resistance
story content
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
514. Which of the following is a key component of Rogers’s person-centered therapy?
——> unconditional positive regard
cognition
resistance
dream interpretation
empty chair technique
1
515. What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist?
to eliminate the client’s undesirable behaviors
——> to help clients become more aware of their own feelings
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
to facilitate transference
to provide unconditional positive regard
to facilitate free association
2
516. Steve is 21 years old and has never gone on a date. His parents are concerned and take him to see a therapist. The therapist tells Steve to lie down on the couch and relax. The therapist sits behind Steve and asks him to say whatever comes into his head. Steve eventually talks about his fear of women, which leads him to think about his early experiences with women: his mother, her friends, his teachers, and so on. Steve is using ________.
the empty chair technique
——> free association
pole-shifting
counterconditioning
token economy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
517. Hiram has learned to seek attention by engaging in inappropriate behaviors by watching his brother receive attention for hitting and biting and then imitating his behavior. Hiram has learned to seek attention by engaging in inappropriate behaviors by using which of the following techniques?
——> modeling
flooding
paradoxical intent
aversion therapy
systematic desensitization
1
518. Your friend tells you that his therapist is a Gestalt therapist. You ask him to describe what might happen in one of his therapy sessions. Which of the following is his most likely answer?
“I am asked by the therapist to relax and meditate.”
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> “During the session I sometimes talk to an empty chair.”
“The therapist evaluates the factual basis of my statements to identify logical inconsistencies.”
“The therapist asks me to describe the details of the dreams I have had recently.”
“The therapist asks me to explain in depth all of the dreams I have had multiple times.”
2
519. Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by ________.
Carl Rogers
Fritz Perls
——> Sigmund Freud
Alfred Adler
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Albert Ellis
3
520. Dr. Graham listens to Maria’s statements and then restates what he feels is Maria’s message and describes her emotions. What type of therapy is Dr. Graham practicing?
psychoanalytic
cognitive
——> person-centered
behavior
biomedical
3
521. Which of the following techniques would be most appropriate for treating overeating or smoking?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
flooding
systematic desensitization
fixed ratio reinforcement scheduled
——> aversion therapy
token economy
4
522. Gestalt therapy is considered ________ because the therapist leads the client through a number of planned exercises as well as confronts the client’s statements.
behavioral
——> directive
cognitive
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
nondirective
biomedical
2
523. Which of the following is a limitation of humanistic therapy?
Clients do not need to be verbal.
The therapist runs the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client.
It cannot be used in a variety of contexts.
It cannot be used in a variety of cultures
——> There is not enough empirical research to support its basic ideas.
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
524. What do behavior therapists see as the cause of abnormal or undesirable behaviors?
unconscious conflicts
distortions in thinking
discrepancy between the real self and ideal self
delusional behaviors
——> learning
5
525. Joanna is experiencing severe anxiety. Her psychiatrist attributes her disorder to a chemical imbalance. Her psychiatrist is using the ________ of abnormality.
behavioral model
——> biological model
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
psychoanalytic model
intrapersonal model
insight model
2
526. Which model of abnormality holds that physical, mental, and cultural factors are intertwined and that they must all be considered when dealing with psychology disorders?
the psychophysiological model
——> the biopsychosocial model
the Gestalt model
the eclectic model
the universal model
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
527. Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR contains an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person’s mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100?
Axis I
Axis III
Axis IV
Axis II
——> Axis V
5
528. You are a psychologist who is evaluating the behavior of a new client. The client tells you that he does not like to wear clothing and that he walks around nude most of the time. In addition, he tells you that he lives in a society in which clothing is required and nudity is seen as abnormal. Which of the following is NOT a criterion by which you evaluate your client’s behavior as abnormal?
statistical definition
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> subjective discomfort
social norm deviance
maladaptive
hygienic
2
529. Which of the following is one definition of abnormal behavior?
——> behavior that is rare
behavior that is adaptive
behavior that does not create distress
behavior that is consistent with the norms of society
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
behavior that is acceptable
1
530. A cognitive therapist is working with a depressed client. Which of the following causes is the likely focus of this therapist’s intervention?
learned behaviors of depression
——> negative interpretations of life events
positive interpretations of dreams
a superego that is too harsh and strict
unusual levels of neurotransmitters
2
531. The primary purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to ________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
describe the causes of common physiological disorders
help psychologists assess only normal behavior
——> help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
list disorders in alphabetical order
keep the number of diagnostic categories of mental disorders to a minimum
3
532. The biological model views psychological disorders as resulting from ________.
repressed memories
unconscious behaviors
distorted thought patterns
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
underlying behavioral issues
——> physiological causes
5
533. What is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of abnormal behavior?
developmental psychology
psychobiology
——> psychopathology
pathology
health psychology
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
534. Which of the following statements is true about the DSM-IV-TR?
It is used to diagnose medical conditions that may have an impact on mental health.
It is used to diagnose imaginative conditions of patients with schizophrenia
It is used to diagnose all kinds of medical conditions.
——> It describes symptoms and includes a checklist of specific criteria for diagnosis.
It lists information regarding symptoms but does not include a checklist of criteria that must be met for diagnosis.
4
535. Which model of abnormality explains abnormal behavior as the result of a set of learned responses?
cognitive
biological
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> behavioral
psychosexual
psychoanalytic
3
536. The Type C behavior pattern is a significant predictor of ________.
mental illness
——> cancer
respiratory illnesses
coronary heart disease
acne
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
537. The Type A behavior pattern is a significant predictor of ________.
cancer
pneumonia
mental illness
respiratory illnesses
——> coronary heart disease
5
538. Jacob’s father has always wanted him to be a lawyer. He has encouraged him to get good grades, graduate college earlier than his peers, and work as hard as he can. Jacob does not care about going to law school, but he does so to please his father. Jacob is responding to ________.
anxiety
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> pressure
cognitive dissonance
overload
hassle
2
539. Levon has a Type B personality. Which of the following is most likely?
Levon gets easily upset.
Levon is competitive.
——> Levon is slow to anger.
Levon is determined to achieve.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Levon is happy.
3
540. Which of the following is the term used to describe unpredictable, large-scale events that create a great deal of stress and feelings of threat?
eustress
hassles
major life events
——> catastrophes
frustration
4
541. ________ occurs when a person is blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
pressure
hassles
major life events
catastrophes
——> frustration
5
542. A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month is called ________.
——> post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
catastrophic stress
acute stress disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
external locus of control
stress disorder
1
543. Which of the following are the three terms used to describe the way in which hardy people differ from many other Type A people and others who suffer more ill effects due to stress?
commitment, control, competitiveness
competitiveness, control, compassion
compassion, challenge, commitment
compassion, challenge, character
——> commitment, control, challenge
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
544. Stress has been shown to put people at a higher risk for ________.
——> heart attack and stroke
unplanned pregnancy
schizophrenia
promotions at work
personality disorders
1
545. The practice of behaviors and lifestyle choices that promote both physical and mental health is called ________.
religious beliefs
health
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
coping
——> wellness
meditation
4
546. ________ occurs when people experience unpleasant stressors.
Catastrophic stress
——> Distress
Acute stress
Frustration
Eustress
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
547. Eating a healthy breakfast ________.
has been shown to decrease the ability to concentrate
has been shown to increase the need for a morning nap
has been shown to increase for heart disease
has been shown to increase the risk of obesity
——> has been shown to decrease the risk of obesity
5
548. ________ psychology is the field of study devoted to understanding the relationship between physical activities, psychological traits, and social relationships and overall health and rates of illness.
Medicinal
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Developmental
——> Health
Physiological
Biomedical
3
549. For the past six months, Dahlia’s job has been extremely stressful, but she doesn’t feel that she can quit because she needs the money for tuition. Dahlia has been having chronic headaches and is behind in all of her classes. According to Hans Selye, Dahlia is in the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
alarm phase
resistance phase
gathering phase
——> exhaustion phase
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
hoarding phase
4
550. Desiring to purchase a book and finding it is out of stock is an example of a(n)________.
internal conflict
——> external frustration
internal frustration
indifferent frustration
external conflict
2
551. Which of the following traits is associated with people who live to be very old?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
aggressiveness
indifferent
——> being easygoing
inflexibility
tenseness
3
552. Tad seems to thrive when faced with difficult challenges and usually feels in control of his life. He would probably be labeled a ________ personality.
Type B
Type C
——> hardy
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
stressed
Type S
3
553. Which of the following is a mental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trance-like state of consciousness?
biofeedback
——> meditation
relaxation response
progressive relaxation
breathing methods
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
554. A person who thrives on stress but lacks the anger and hostility typical of some others who have the Type A personality is said to have a ________ personality.
——> hardy
optimistic
Type B
Type C
happy
1
555. Which psychologist is credited with proposing the general adaptation syndrome?
——> Hans Selye
Lazarus
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Berkowitz
Holmes and Rahe
Beck
1
556. When subjects in an experimental group put a puzzle piece in the wrong place, the experimenter unconsciously tapped his feet. The experimenter did not tap his feet when subjects in the control group placed a puzzle piece in the wrong place. One method to eliminate the tapping of the experimenter is by instituting:
the single-blind procedure
——> the double-blind procedure
the placebo effect
the subject bias effect
the independent variable
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
557. In an experiment conducted to determine whether playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior in adolescents, one group of subjects played nonviolent video games and the other group played violent video games. In the play period that followed the video game exercise, researchers observed the two groups of adolescents together and counted the number of aggressive acts. The dependent variable in the experiment is the:
nonviolent video game
violent video game
group playing nonviolent video games
amount of time spent playing video games
——> amount of aggressive behavior exhibited by the children
5
558. Ethan wants to study the effects of alcohol on the behavior of college females. For his study, Ethan spends 6 hours every night for 4 weeks at a campus bar watching how the females act before and after consuming alcoholic beverages. The research method Ethan is conducting is a
case study
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
controlled experiment
survey
quasi-experiment
——> naturalistic observation
5
559. Mary Ainsworth’s Stranger Situation is typically tested on young children to demonstrate:
intelligence
reaction time
depth perception
——> attachment
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
object permanence
4
560. According to the research on attraction, individuals are most likely to be attracted to others who are:
less physically attractive than they are
more physically attractive than they are
complete strangers
——> similar to themselves
total opposites from themselves
4
561. When asked what they would do if they could be totally invisible and there would be no recrimination, most people answered they would commit an antisocial act. Which of the following social phenomena might best be able to explain this response?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
group polarization
social loafing
——> deindividuation
self-fullfilling prophecy
groupthink
3
562. Which of the following psychotropic drugs will NOT increase behavioral and mental activity?
cocaine
caffeine
benzedrine
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
amphetamines
——> barbiturates
5
563. In small quantities, alcohol can be mistaken for a stimulant because it:
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system
speeds up the respiration and heart rate
——> inhibits control of emotions
induces sleep
affects the cerebellum
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
564. During a debate for Senate, both the Republican and Democratic candidates argued the findings of a recent opinion poll supported their platform in regards to taxes. Because both Senate candidates viewed the information as only supporting their personal belief, they were both guilty of:
belief bias
ingroup bias
——> confirmation bias
functional fixedness
prejudice
3
565. The rules of language that direct a person to derive meaning from words and sentences are the rules of:
grammar
——> semantics
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
syntax
phonemes
morphemes
2
566. Which area of the brain is important in processing implicit memories such as ice-skating?
hippocampus
association areas
limbic system
——> cerebellum
amygdala
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
567. A loose screw on the door hinge keeps causing the door to squeak whenever anyone opens it. When he notices the door squeak the next day, Hunter reaches into his pocket for a dime to tighten the screw holding the hinge. What problem-solving difficulty did Huner overcome?
retroactive interference
——> functional fixedness
poor problem representation
proactive interferece
the representative heuristic
2
568. Behaviorists such as Skinner have argued that language development is the result of:
reinforcement
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
association
imitation
——> all of the above
none of the above
4
569. When Tyrek broke his cell phone and had to purchase a new phone, he also got a new phone number. Every time he is asked for his new number, Tyrek first thinks of his old number. Tyrek is experiencing the effects of:
——> proactive interference
retroactive interference
mental set
encoding failure
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
storage failure
1
570. On the 72nd hole of the U.S. Open golf tournament, Phil Mickelson misses a one-foot putt that would have won the championship. During an interview afterward, he stated, “I’ve made that putt a thousand times on the practice green. I can’t believe that I missed it!” Based on your knowledge of social psychology, which phenomenon may have contributed to the errant putt?
social loafing
social facilitation
diffusion of ability
social compliance
——> social impairment
5
571. The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying with a small request is called the ______ technique.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
lowball
door-in-the-face
——> foot-in-the-door
response cue
that’s-not-all technique
3
572. You get a free sample of a new cereal in the mail. The company hopes you will try the cereal and then feel obligated to buy it. What term do psychologists use to describe this phenomenon?
indebtedness
augmented return
social facilitation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
obedience
——> norm of reciprocity
5
573. A consultant was telling newly-hired salespeople about techniques they can use to increase sales. At one point he was talking about increasing compliance by creating a sense of obligation. Because one of the last classes you took before you graduated was Social Psychology, you recognize the concept as ________________.
——> the norm of reciprocity
indebtedness
foot-in-the-door effect
returning a favor
the lowball technique
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
574. “Mommy, Mommy, Mommy,” your young son asks frantically. “Can we please buy a new PlayStation�3 console with all of the games and the wireless controllers so that we don’t have to sit near the television?” “No,” you reply, “we can’t afford to buy all of that!” Seemingly unperturbed by your rejection, your son comes back with, “Then can we just buy one new game for our PlayStation�2?” “Okay, I guess so,” you answer, not realizing that your very advanced son has taken a social psychology class and has just used the _____________ technique to get what he wanted.
——> door-in-the-face
foot-in-the-door
that’s-not-all
lowball
reciprocity
1
575. After a group of gang members learned that their friend had died in a seemingly random accident, several of the friends started blaming a rival gang for the death. Even though there was no evidence whatsoever that the death had been intentional, the more the friends talked, the more passionate they became in their belief that an act of revenge was necessary. What concept from social psychology may contribute to an act of violent revenge in this case?
social influence
prosocial behavior
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
altruism
self-serving bias
——> groupthink
5
576. Research has found support for Asch’s findings in countries including Hong Kong, Japan, and Zimbabwe. In fact, in these locations the conformity effect was even higher than Asch reported. What might explain this increase in conformity?
These three countries are all located in warmer climates, which Asch found leads to more conformity.
——> These three countries have generally collectivist cultures.
These three countries have generally individualistic cultures.
These three countries did not have access to Asch’s work, so their findings were not influenced by the original study.
These three countries all have uniformly low socioeconomic status.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
577. Carlos and his work associates form a close, friendly group, and they usually work well together. However, they may face a problem involving an extreme form of conformity called ______________.
fundamental attribution error
generational identity
——> groupthink
self-serving bias
stereotyping
3
578. In what way is compliance different from conformity?
——> Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to indirect social pressure.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Conformity and compliance are very similar; the distinction depends on whether one is a male or female.
Conformity involves direct group pressure for change, whereas compliance involves orders or commands.
Compliance involves eliciting reaction on the part of group members, whereas conformity involves subliminal persuasion.
Compliance involves soliciting the reactions of individuals, whereas conformity involves direct group pressure.
1
579. A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all group members get the same grade. What social psychological phenomenon might the teacher be concerned about?
conformity
——> social loafing
social influence
social facilitation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
social idleness
2
580. Recent research using the Asch paradigm has found less conformity in the United States than the original study found in the 1950s. The reason for this decrease in conformity may be that _____.
——> the nature of the people in the 1950s seemed to be more conforming
people today are more obedient
people in the 1950s had less money
people today watch more television
people today are less likely to make attributions
1
581. What is a difference between obedience and conformity?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> In obedience, there is a difference in status between the one who obeys and the one who makes the request.
Conformity requires strict adherence to the rules, whereas obedience does not.
Obedience is an indirect request, whereas conformity is a direct request.
In conformity, there is a perceived difference in status between the one who conforms and the group.
Conformity involves agreeing to change in response to a request, whereas obedience involves an indirect request for agreement.
1
582. A social psychologist has been invited to give a community lecture on the importance of Milgram’s research. He asks a social psychology class for suggested titles. Which of the following titles might they suggest as the most appropriate?
“Obedience and Aggression Are Inborn”
——> “Do Not Underestimate the Power of Perceived Authority”
“Training in Ethics Can Overcome the Pull of Obedience”
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
“Make a Small Request First and the World Can Be Yours”
“Informed Consent as an Integral Component of Obedience Research”
2
583. The tendency of people to comply with a second, lesser request after refusing a larger one is called the ______ technique.
lowball
norm of reciprocity
foot-in-the-door
bait-and-switch
——> door-in-the-face
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
584. In Solomon Asch’s study, which factor increased the rate of conformity?
the task difficulty was increased
the confederates were all adults
——> the number of confederates increased
the participants were given two chances at responding
the respondents were polled individually
3
585. An individual who exerts less effort when working on a group task if individual contributions will not be evaluated is engaging in what is called _____.
——> social loafing
social idleness
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
social facilitation
the goof-off phenomenon
malingering
1
586. Imagine that 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram’s famous study on obedience. How are these 100 people likely to respond?
——> The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed.
The majority would immediately realize the use of deception and leave.
Most of the women would refuse to obey, whereas almost all of the men would obey.
Most of the participants would work together to force the experimenter to end the experiment.
Most of the participants would demand to speak to the “subject” to see if the pain was becoming too severe.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
587. Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. During a class discussion, he hears the first of several speakers express very negative attitudes toward spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor. When it is his turn to speak, he voices an opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. Vince’s behavior is an example of _______________________.
compliance
persuasion
obedience
altruism
——> conformity
5
588. Which statement best describes an important finding of Milgram’s classic research?
Individuals easily conform to group norms.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
The presence of other people makes aggression more likely.
——> People will easily obey an authority figure and do harm to others.
Agreeing to a small request makes it more likely you will agree to a big request.[SMJ1][KH2]
Agreeing to a big request makes it more likely you will agree to a small request.
3
589. While walking through an airport, a well-dressed lady walks up to you and pins a flower on your shirt, saying “I’d like you to have this flower on behalf of the Brotherhood of Friends. Would you like to make a donation to our cause?” This lady is attempting to use the _____________ to get your money.
foot-in-the-door technique
that’s-not-all technique
——> norm of reciprocity
lowball technique
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
door-in-the-face
3
590. Which of the following sets of numbers has the largest standard deviation?
91, 92, 93, 94, 95
5, 5.5, 5.56, 5.6, 5.65
——> 2, 6, 10, 14, 18
1.00, 1.10, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75
-1.5, -1.0, 0, 1.0, 1.5
3
591. If the variance of a set of scores on a standardized test is 100, the standard deviation will be:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> 10
15
25
50
100
1
592. If Mr. Nelson compared the scores of students on the even-numbered questions on the test with their scores for the odd-numbered questions, he would be trying to determine if the test had:
predictive validity
content validity
test-retest validity
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> split-half validity
face validity
4
593. Heather is 26 years old. For her new job, she needs to take an intelligence test. Which of the following would be the most appropriate test for her age group?
——> WAIS-III
WPPSI-R
WISC-III
DAT
DSM-IVR
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
594. Louisa, an 85 year-old, takes longer to solve problems that require abstract thinking than she did when she as 40. This tendency indicates:
a decrease in her concrete operations
a decrease in her crystallized intelligence
——> a decrease in her fluid intelligence
an increase in her fluid intelligence
a decrease in her intelligence level
3
595. Which schedule of reinforcement is followed by Suri, who answers every text message and email message her boyfriend sends?
fixed ratio
fixed interval
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
variable interval
——> continuous
variable ratio
4
596. When a pair of lights flashing in quick succession seems to be one light moving from place to place, the effect is referred to as:
binocular cues
——> the phi phenomenon
stroboscopic movement
divergence
spontaneous recovery
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
597. Students in Mrs. Evan’s first grade class are given tokens for positive behavior. At the end of the school week, students are able to put the tokens in vending machines to get prizes. The tokens act as:
primary reinforcers
classical conditioners
——> secondary reinforcers
unconditioned reinforcers
negative reinforcers
3
598. Which of the following reinforcement schedules results in maintenance of behavior that is MOST resistant to extinction?
continuous
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
fixed ratio
fixed interval
variable interval
——> variable ratio
5
599. The Robber’s Cave experiment showed that _____________.
playing athletic games, such as football and baseball, reduces us-them hostility
watching movies together, and similar quiet interactions, reduces us-them hostility
engaging in mutually exciting activities, such as tug-of-war, reduces us-them hostility
participating in educational activities like group spelling contests reduces us-them hostility
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> interdependence in solving crises together reduces us-them hostility
5
600. Which of the following individuals is the most likely candidate to join a cult?
Dan, who just got a job, has a great marriage but is unhappy with his religion
Jane, who is a straight A student and has a great relationship with her parents, but just broke up with her boyfriend
——> Glenn, who lives with his strict parents, never fights back when people call him names, and builds Star Trek symbols out of wood
Brenda, who is disappointed with the president, lives with her sister, and has a great job
Bill, who plays two sports, but who will miss both seasons due to a knee injury
3
601. A car crash woke John from his afternoon nap. When he looked out his apartment window, he saw several people milling around two smashed cars. He decided not to dial 911 because he assumed someone had already called. John’s reaction is an example of ______.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> the bystander effect
pluralistic compliance
obedience to authority
conformity to social norms
dispositional attribution
1
602. According to the research of Latan� and Darley, which of the following situations would be the most likely in which someone would offer to help?
person on the side of the road with a flat tire during rush hour
person asking for help in a crowded stadium parking lot
——> person falling down coming out of an elevator with only one other person in it
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
a student falling off a ladder outside a full classroom
person choking in a crowded restaurant
3
603. According to Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, the first reaction of a person faced with a terminal illness such as cancer is:
depression
anger
bargaining
——> denial
acceptance
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
604. According to the social learning theory, gender identity results from:
labeling a child as a girl or boy
——> observation and imitation of significant role models
reinforcement of gender-appropriate behaviors and punishment of gender-inappropriate behaviors
chromosomal and hormonal differences during prenatal development
cognitively labeling of oneself
2
605. Which of the following psychological approaches is most concerned with the importance of how humans encode, store, and retrieve information?
behavioral approach
psychodynamic approach
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> cognitive approach
biopsychosocial approach
biological approach
3
606. Alyssa eats sparingly and with anguish and disgust, although she has an intense interest in food. Alyssa fears of becoming obese, and even though she looks emaciated, she still claims she “feels fat” and refuses to eat enough to maintain even a minimal normal body weight for her frame. Alyssa is most likely suffering from ________.
obesity phobia
set-point nervosa
——> anorexia nervosa
repression
bulimia nervosa
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
607. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, striving for personal fulfillment and living up to one’s potential are examples of:
physiological needs
biological needs
belonging needs
secondary needs
——> self-actualization needs
5
608. The ________ theory used to describe motivation suggests a connection between internal physical states and outward behavior.
motives
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
motivation-reduction
——> drive-reduction
need-reduction
incentive-drive
3
609. According to Maslow, the motive of self-actualization makes one want ________.
to protect themselves and family members
——> to fulfill one’s fullest potential
to have contact with others and be accepted
to convince others of one’s true worth
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
to possess as many material goods as possible
2
610. The saying, “Out of sight, out of mind,” can easily summarize which of the following social psychological phenomenon in regards to attraction?
——> proximity
reciprocal liking
similarity
physical attractiveness
closeness
1
611. “Birds of a feather” is a phrase that refers to __________.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> similarity
reinforcement
self-disclosure
emotional expression
identification
1
612. Which of the following illustrates the power of complementary traits?
——> An outgoing woman marries a shy man.
A girl marries the boy next door.
Two tennis players become good friends.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
A girl and a boy who both like jogging fall in love.
A girl who learns that a boy likes her begins to like the boy.
1
613. Receptors for kinesthesis are located in the:
——> semicircular canals
olfactory epithelium
retinal
cochlea
basilar ganglia
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
614. A painting that shows sailboats on a lake in the foreground and mountains further away would NOT use which cue to contribute to your perception that the mountains are further away than the boats in the picture?
linear perspective
——> retinal disparity
interposition
relative height
texture gradient
2
615. The most common form of color blindness is related to the deficiencies in the:
bipolar cells
blue-yellow system
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
blue-red system
——> red-green system
black-white system
4
616. Anthony is dishonest, has been in repeated trouble with authority figures, and lacks remorse for his actions. Anthony’s behavior is characteristic of which of the following personality disorders?
——> antisocial
borderline
narcissistic
histrionic
schizoid
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
617. One suspected biological cause of schizophrenia is the abnormal increase of which of the following neurotransmitters?
acetylcholine
glutamate
——> dopamine
norepinephrine
serotonin
3
618. Jarren is feeling down, does not want to do anything but sleep and is reacting to low levels of light present in the winter months. Jarren is most likely suffering from:
bipolar disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> seasonal affective disorder
major depressive disorder
anxiety disorder
dissociative disorder
2
619. Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia often involve perceptions of nonexistent sensory stimulation, such as voices. These symptoms are known as:
delusions
——> hallucinations
paranormal images
gestalt figures
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
d�j� vu
2
620. Tanner, a college freshman, experiences a loss of sensation in his right arm before exams. Doctors cannot find any physical basis for his condition. Tanner most likely is experiencing which of the following?
sublimation
——> somatoform disorder
anxiety disorder
dissociative disorder
delusion
2
621. For several weeks, Cassie has lacked energy, motivation, has been unable to go to school, and has expected bad things to happen every day, ever since she broke up with her boyfriend. Of the following, Cassie is most likely experiencing:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
mania
hypochondria
——> depression
stress
posttraumatic stress
3
622. After witnessing an accident that killed her best friend, Shante reports she is blind. Although she bumps into objects at home and elsewhere, specialists have found nothing wrong with the structure or function of her eyes or evidence of brain damage. Shante should be evaluated for ________.
bipolar disorder
dissociative identity disorder
——> conversion disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
hypochondriasis
panic disorder
3
623. Alex is standing in line at Wal-Mart waiting to pay for his purchases. A man cuts in front of the line and drops his items on the counter. Alex says to his friend, “That man is incredibly rude.” A social psychologist who is within earshot jots down a note so she can use the example in class. What does she write concerning Alex?
he made a situational attribution
——> he made a dispositional attribution
his remark is based on a stereotype
his remark is considered a collectivistic remark
his remark is based a social comparison
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
624. Attributions are __________________.
——> explanations that account for one’s own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others.
innate personality traits
genetic predispositions to behave a certain way
physical qualities people have, such as attractiveness
personal predispositions like introversion-extraversion
1
625. Roberta is trying to decide whether to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she has read about him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions. Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her opinion that the candidate is not qualified represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
——> cognitive
feeling
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
intuition
behavioral
situational
1
626. A local car insurance company advertises their products with television commercials. During those spots, there are flashy lights, attractive dancers wearing skin-tight outfits, and local celebrities talking about how they have that company’s insurance. The advertisement does not, however, mention any of the features or costs associated with the product. This company is attempting to earn customers through which path of processing?
central-route
tertiary-route
secondary-route
elaboration-route
——> peripheral-route
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
5
627. What is the relationship between expertise and persuasion?
Expertise has no effect on persuasion.
Nonexperts tend to be the most persuasive.
——> Greater expertise leads to greater persuasion.
Communicators with moderate expertise are the most persuasive.
Communicators with approximately the same expertise as the audience are the most persuasive.
3
628. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of attitudes?
thoughts
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
feelings
——> goals
behaviors
All of the above are major components of attitudes.
3
629. You want to visit Argentina but your attitude about Argentina is changing as you read the news about the kidnappings that have occurred there. Which component of attitude is being affected?
affective
——> cognitive
behavioral
situational
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
intuitive
2
630. Luis picks up a pack of cigarettes and reads, “Cigarette smoking is harmful to your health.” Which one of the following statements leads one to believe Luis is actually having cognitive dissonance?
“I’ve been smoking my whole life and I don’t have health problems.”
“No one I know who smokes is sick.”
——> “I know these cigarettes are killing me but I just can’t stop.”
“That is not true. Cigarettes are not that harmful.”
“The arguments that cigarettes are harmful is being used by a few people to win lawsuits against cigarette manufacturers.
3
631. When we make situational attributions, we are identifying the cause of an action as something _____.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> in the environment
in the person’s disposition
that is a biological trait
with an unconscious motivation
that has been classically conditioned
1
632. The study of the judgments people make as to whether someone else’s behavior is due to something about that person or due to the person’s situation is called ______.
the primacy effect
cognitive dissonance
stereotyping
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
social categorization
——> attribution theory
5
633. Which of the following is an example of cognitive dissonance?
You are a lousy cook but you keep trying different recipes.
You dislike doing exercise but do it anyway to improve your health.
You are polite and civil to people you dislike.
You stop eating your favorite dessert to reduce fat in your diet.
——> You believe that reality TV is for morons but are addicted to American Idol and watch every episode.
5
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
634. Which communicator would likely be the most persuasive?
——> an attractive person who is an expert
a moderately attractive person who is an expert
an attractive person who has moderate expertise
a moderately attractive person who has moderate expertise
a less attractive person who has great expertise
1
635. Kerry’s positive attitude toward China, even though she has never been there, seems to be related to the fact that her mother is Chinese and talks about China all the time with Kerry. Which method of attitude formation is involved in this example?
direct contact
direct instruction
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> interaction with others
classical conditioning
vicarious conditioning
3
636. Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)?
——> Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $20.
Those who got $20 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $1.
Paid groups said the task was less boring than did nonpaid groups.
Women performed the tasks for less money than men.
Men performed the tasks for less money than women.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
637. Which part of the brain has been identified as being particularly active when people experience cognitive dissonance?
——> the left frontal cortex
the anterior amygdala
the ascending pyramidal tracks
the dorsolateral hypothalamus
the corpus callosum
1
638. A state of tension that occurs when a person’s attitudes do not match the person’s actions is called __________.
——> cognitive dissonance
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
the validity effect
the fundamental attribution error
routinization
attitudinal dysfunction
1
639. Dr. Schrotter conducted experiments in which she electrically stimulated parts of a cat’s brain. A cat that became terrified in the presence of a mouse was most likely stimulated in the:
thalamus
——> limbic system
medulla
cerebellum
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
frontal lobe
2
640. Which of the following types of neurons stimulate a muscle to contract?
interneurons
afferent neurons
——> efferent neurons
glial cells
receptor cells
3
641. Lucy suffered a stroke last week and cannot remember her children or grandchildren by looking at them or their pictures. Of the following structures, her brain lesion is most likely in the:
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
cerebellum
——> hippocampus
amygdala
hypothalamus
left frontal lobe
2
642. Activation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system after a heated argument results in
an increase in hunger
a decrease in heart rate
——> an increase in respiratory rate
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
an increase in salivation
an increase in digestion
3
643. Ralph, a white student who grew up in Maine, is about to enter the University of Southern California on an athletic scholarship. He is aware that many of his teammates will be black and assumes that they will dislike him and ostracize him. Ralph’s attitude is BEST described as an example of ______.
——> prejudice
ambiguity
nonconformity
discrimination
impression formation
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
644. The issue of racial profiling has been a controversial topic in the United States for many years, and it was particularly widespread after the events of September 11, 2001. When an individual engages in profiling and assumes that one person must possess certain qualities because of their race or ethnicity, (s)he is engaging in _____________.
attribution
discrimination
——> stereotyping
social loafing
categorizing
3
645. “We” have all different types of personalities and lots of endearing little quirks, whereas “they” all think and act alike. This assumption would be an example of the cognitive schema called ______________.
mindlessness
——> a stereotype
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
a fundamental attribution error
mental set
dispositional cause
2
646. Luther operates a small nightclub that specializes in soul music and features up-and-coming African American singing groups. He actively discourages white couples from coming in and always gives them the worst seats if they insist on being admitted. Luther’s behavior is BEST described as an example of ______.
prejudice
ambiguity
——> discrimination
oppression
bias
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
647. What is the term for the process of developing our first knowledge about another person?
social interaction
stereotyping
——> impression formation
interpersonal judgment
social cognition
3
648. Prejudice is a(n) _________, whereas discrimination is a(n) ________.
dislike; hatred
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
hatred; dislike
response; cognition
behavior; attitude
——> attitude; behavior
5
649. The part of a person’s self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, culture, or ethnic group or with gender or other roles in society is called _____________.
the fundamental attribution error
self-serving bias
self-fulfilling prophecy
ethnocentrism
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> social identity
5
650. Which of the following reflects the inborn and stable dimensions of personality, such as calmness?
nucleus
gender
adaptation
maturation
——> temperament
5
651. Which perspective uses the Thematic Apperception Test as a way to evaluate the test taker’s projection of unconscious feelings onto the stimuli?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
trait
——> psychodynamic
humanistic
cognitive
behavioral
2
652. In Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic view, the role of the ego is to:
serve the demands of the id
serve the demands of the superego
allow the individual to act in any way they seem fit
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> mediate between the id, superego, and reality
suppress all demands of the id
4
653. An individual who accepts personal responsibility for her life experiences may be characterized has having:
——> an internal locus of control
an external locus of control
an extroverted personality
an introverted personality
a conventional morality
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
654. Hans feels uneasy whenever he sees a man wearing a gray coat. He tells a friend that he is worried the man in the gray coat is going to hurt him. If Hans is suffering from an anxiety disorder, how would the nurture theory view this disorder?
——> The experiences in Hans’s life have caused him to develop this irrational fear.
Hans inherited this anxiety disorder from a parent who also fears men in gray coats.
According to his doctor, Hans’s disorder is hereditary and is caused by his genes.
Hans is trapped between reality and illusion.
Hans is trapped between unconscious and conscious
1
655. From a biological perspective, a low level of the neurotransmitter serotonin is associated with depression. Repetitive physical exercise can increase a person’s level of serotonin. What conclusion can be drawn from this information?
——> Exercise is a healthy addition to treatment for depression.
Unconscious drives influence neurotransmitter levels.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
If an athlete feels depressed, he isn’t practicing enough.
Physically fit people are not at risk for depression.
People can treat depression themselves and never need professional help.
1
656. Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often troubled because of their irrational thoughts about the explanation of events?
psychoanalytic
behavioral
——> cognitive
humanistic
group
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
657. Thomas reported on Tuesday, he felt like he could run a marathon and he was up all night cleaning and organizing his closet. On Friday, he said he was so sad that he stayed in bed all day rather than going to school. Which disorder is Thomas most likely experiencing?
——> bipolar disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
obsessive-compulsive disorder
major depressive disorder
dysthymia
1
658. A man firmly believes that he is smarter than all his co-workers and tells everyone in the office that the company would be lost without him. He often fantasizes about being promoted and ensuring success for the company. He flies into a rage whenever anyone questions or contradicts him. Which personality disorder does he most likely suffer from?
schizoid
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> narcissistic
histrionic
schizotypal
avoidant
2
659. Ron reports he felt like he had a heart attack. He states he was sweating, unable to breathe, and his heart was palpitating so fast he felt like it was going to burst out of his chest. Which disorder is Ron most likely experiencing?
obsessive-compulsive disorder
specific phobia disorder
bipolar disorder
——> panic disorder
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
acute stress disorder
4
660. The field of psychology that studies abnormal behavior is:
developmental psychology
psychobiology
——> psychopathology
pathology
health psychology
3
661. Which option best describes the humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers called client-centered therapy.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
The therapist explores the client’s childhood background to determine the issues and conflicts of interpersonal relationships.
It analyzes conflicts between id and superego.
——> It uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, and empathetic environment to encourage the client to talk openly.
The client’s words and behaviors are interpreted by the therapist, who brings the client’s unconscious feelings into conscious awareness.
It exposes the patient to what he usually avoids so that he will be less responsive to things that once scared him.
3
662. There are two main types of coping strategies to deal with stress in our lives can be either ________ -focused or ________ -focused.
——> problem; emotion
social; spiritual
internally; externally
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
distress; easy
nature; nurture
1
663. Someone with paranoid personality disorder is most likely to exhibit behavior marked by:
——> a pattern of distrust and suspicion of others
actions that seem “over the top” from what society views as the norm
a desire for social acceptance
social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
a desire to be the center of attention and difficulty making real connections with others
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
664. Nelly reports her family often refers to her as “Worry Nelly.” She explains she worries from the time she gets up in the morning until the time she goes to bed. She reports she worries about what the weather will be like tomorrow and how her favorite football team will do on Sunday. Which disorder is Nelly most likely experiencing?
bipolar disorder
——> generalized anxiety disorder
obsessive-compulsive disorder
panic disorder
major depressive disorder
2
665. A teenager can effectively cope with stress and anxiety by:
leaving the house only when necessary.
waiting until the last minute to study for a test.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> using meditation.
withdrawing from friends and family.
experiencing the stress fully.
3
666. Which option best defines a delusion?
hearing voices that don’t exist
——> firmly held beliefs without factual basis
false sensory perceptions
seeing things that have no sensory stimuli
experiences that never really happened
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
667. David reports that he feels fine while on medication, but he loves the happy and elated feeling he experiences when he stops taking the medication. That feeling makes up for the really low feelings he experiences at other times when he’s not taking his medication. Which disorder is David most likely experiencing?
——> bipolar disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
obsessive-compulsive disorder
schizophrenia
major depressive disorder
1
668. The narcotic, prescribed by physicians, that is used to treat pain, and often abused is known as:
——> Morphine
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Heroin
Cocaine
Sedatives
LSD
1
669. Which of the following is true about rods and cones?
Both rods and cones are located in the blind spot.
Rods and cones are distributed evenly in the cornea.
Rods are responsible for perception in daylight, where cones are particularly useful at night.
Cones are concentrated in the edges of the retina, rods are more concentrated in the fovea.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Cones facilitate color vision and are located in the fovea and rods facilitate black-and-white vision.
5
670. _____ are photoreceptor cells responsible for color and other facets of daytime vision.
Bipolar cells
Ganglion cells
——> Cones
Rods
All of the above
3
671. REM sleep is highly correlated with which of the following?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Tense muscles
Sleep walking
Sleep apnea
——> Dreaming
Insomnia
4
672. Ashley finds herself having difficulty falling asleep at night. When she does fall asleep, she wakens several times each night and has trouble falling back asleep. Ashley may be experiencing:
sleep apnea
narcolepsy
somnambulism
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
night terrors
——> insomnia
5
673. Which of the following is characterized by a periodic appearance of sleep spindles?
REM
Stage 4 sleep
Stage 3 sleep
——> Stage 2 sleep
Stage 1 sleep
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
674. ______ is the idea that the change in stimulus strength needed for a detection of the change is proportional to the strength of the ongoing stimulus.
Visual capture
——> Weber’s Law
Subliminal perception
Sensory adaptation
Transduction
2
675. David, a junior in college, sporadically stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up gasping for air and then falls back to sleep very quickly. David’s college roommate complains that David loudly snores every night. David may be suffering from:
Narcolepsy
Night Terrors
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Insomnia
Sleep Snoring
——> Sleep Apnea
5
676. According to the Activation-Synthesis theory, dreams:
——> have no hidden meaning and are just the result of random nerve firings
are a replay of the day’s events
reveal important unconscious conflicts and desires
represent fears
reflect problems we are having difficulty solving
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
1
677. During the finals of the National Basketball Association (NBA) Kobe Bryant misses a foul shot to give his team the lead with 10 seconds left in the game. Even though Kobe usually makes those shots during practice, he missed it at a crucial time. Why do you think this might have happened?
social loafing
social facilitation
——> social impairment
diffusion of responsibility
group think
3
678. The phenomenon that causes people to perform better on tasks when in the presence of others can be explained by:
social expectation
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> social facilitation
social image
normative social influence
social loafing
2
679. The saying, “Out of sight, out of mind,” can easily summarize the social psychological phenomenon known as the ________ rule of interpersonal attraction.
——> proximity
reciprocal liking
similarity
physical attractiveness
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
closeness
1
680. According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is likely to result from:
——> frustration
the self-fulfilling prophecy
the just-world phenomenon
mood linkage
overjustification
1
681. You get a free appetizer at a new local restaurant in your email. The new restaurant owner hopes you will come to the restaurant for the free appetizer but then feel obligated to buy a meal. What term do psychologists use to describe this phenomenon?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
augmented return
social facilitation
indebtedness
norm of indebtedness
——> norm of reciprocity
5
682. Who is credited with coining the term cognitive dissonance?
Solomon Asch
——> Leon Festinger
Stanley Milgram
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
B.F. Skinner
David Myers
2
683. The school of psychology focused primarily with the processes of perception is:
psychodynamic
behavioral
functionalism
——> gestalt
structuralism
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
684. In a study testing the effects of a particular sports drink on performance of ice skaters, which of the following would be the independent variable?
performance of ice skaters
——> sports drink
water
time of day
none of the above
2
685. In order to measure a variable in a research study, we must first develop _______ for it.
an independent definition
a descriptive definition
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> an operational definition
a hypothetical definition
a conclusive definition
3
686. Your older brother is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical college student studies each day. He tells you he plans to pass out his survey to the members of his bio-chem. class. You point out that his findings will be flawed due to:
he has not specified his dependent variable
he has not specified his experimental group
he has not specified his control group
——> his sample will not be representative of the entire population
all of the above
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
687. In a research studying the effect of sugar intake on concentration, the researcher randomly assigns student participants to either a group that receives water before taking a test or juice and candy before taking a test. The independent variable in the study is the:
——> sugar consumption
water
test scores
control group
the difference between test scores
1
688. Illusory correlation refers to:
a correlation that equals 1.0
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
a correlation that equals -0.9
an insignificant correlation
the perception that a negatively correlated variable is positively correlated
——> the perception of a correlation where there is none
5
689. To prevent the possibility that a placebo effect will influence a study’s results, a researcher will employ:
random assignment
representative sampling
control groups
experimental groups
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> the double-blind procedure
5
690. Which of the following would be used to measure the relationship between age and reaction time while driving at night?
Standard deviation
Central tendency
——> Correlation
Histogram
Range
3
691. The _____ perspective is concerned with how behavior changes across broader cultural and societal contexts.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
humanistic
cognitive
behavioral
biological
——> sociocultural
5
692. In a study testing the effects of a particular sports drink on performance of ice skaters, which of the following would be the dependent variable?
sports drink
——> performance of ice skaters
time of day
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
difficulty of routine
all of the above
2
693. In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?
Classical conditioning
Observational learning
——> Operant conditioning
Latent learning
Modeling
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
694. Abbie, a three year old notices whenever she throws a tantrum, her grandparents walk away into the other room and ignore her. Abbie’s grandparents are using what technique to control her behavior?
Positive punishment
——> Negative punishment
Positive reinforcement
Shaping
Stimulus generalization
2
695. Jackson’s two-year old sister, Claire, watches him whenever he brushes his teeth. One night, Jackson gives Claire a toothbrush, and she imitates Jackson’s actions. Claire now goes to brush her teeth before going to bed, and she sometimes she even leads Jackson to the bathroom sink to brush their teeth together. Which theory supports the idea that Claire learned behaviors from observing how Jackson behaves?
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Social learning theory
Latent learning
Shaping
3
696. Garcia’s taste aversion experiments demonstrated that taste aversion is a type of learning most closely associated with:
latent learning
social learning
modeling
——> classical conditioning
operant conditioning
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
697. A chef makes a particular dish the same way every day. He always chops carrots just before he chops the onions. Initially, the onions make his eyes tear up, and the carrots do not. After making the dish several times, however, the chef notices that his eyes begin to tear up when hi is chopping the carrots. The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is the ___ and the conditioned stimulus (CS) is the ____.
carrots; dish chef is preparing
onions; dish chef is preparing
carrots; onions
——> onions; carrots
dish chef is preparing; onions
4
698. On the first day of class, Professor Everitt tells her psychology students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Studying for Professor Everitt’s surprise quizzes will be reinforced which type of schedule?
Fixed-ratio
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Fixed-interval
Variable-ratio
——> Variable-interval
Partial
4
699. Every time Brayden behaves in Miss A’s first grade class, Brayden receives a star on his behavior chart. As Brayden acquires stars, he can exchange them for other things he wants such as candy. Miss A uses:
counterconditioning
systematic desensitization
——> token economy
partial reinforcement
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
shaping
3
700. Taking car privileges away from a teenager who comes home past curfew is an example of:
positive reinforcement
——> negative punishment
positive punishment
negative reinforcement
conditioned response
2
701. Every Saturday morning Abram quickly rushes outside to wash the family car so that his father will allow him to take the car out at night. In this example, taking the car out is a(n):
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
negative reinforcer
——> positive reinforcer
unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
conditioned response
2
702. Lisa fails to recognize the connection between her unsafe drug use and the likelihood of being arrested. Lisa’s lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of:
the spotlight effect
——> an external locus of control
unconditioned positive regard
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
displacement
rationalization
2
703. When Anna looks at some modern artwork at the museum, she often thinks she sees human figures or faces and likes to make up stories about them. When she tells the stories to her friend, her friend says that the stories reflect Anna’s unconscious thoughts. In psychological terms, what Anna does is most similar to ______.
classical conditioning
——> a projective test
behavior sampling
an objective test
social cognition
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
704. Which defense mechanism was a prominent part in both Adler’s and Horney’s theories?
——> compensation
rationalization
suppression
intellectualization
repression
1
705. The Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) is an example of which type of personality test?
——> objective
subjective
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
strategic
projective
deviant
1
706. Self-esteem would be most associated with which of the following perspectives?
Psychodynamic
Trait
Social-cognitive
——> Humanistic
Behavioral
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
4
707. In studying personality, Mr. Palinato, a trait theorist, would most likely:
use a projective test
observe a person in a variety of life situations
use free association
use factor analysis
——> use a personality inventory
5
708. According to Freud, what is the relationship between unconsciousness and one’s feelings and thoughts?
——> Unconsciousness contains feelings and thoughts to which a person doesn’t have access.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Unconsciousness reveals feelings and thoughts of which a person is already aware.
Unconsciousness interprets feelings into actions for the individual.
Unconsciousness screens a person’s recently acquired feelings and thoughts.
Unconsciousness removes a person’s useless or undesirable feelings and thoughts.
1
709. What must a person have in order to overcome a sense of helplessness that is associated with the repeated occurrence of negative events?
——> personal control
learned helplessness
introspection
reciprocal determinism
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
external locus of control
1
710. Computer-generated images of the brain that provide information about glucose metabolism are produced by:
EKG
EEG (Electroencephalography)
CAT (Computerized axial tomography)
MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging)
——> PET (Positron-emission tomography)
5
711. The ______ prevents some toxins and poisonous substances from being transmitted into the brain.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
corpus callosum
pituitary gland
basal ganglia
——> blood-brain barrier
central nervous system
4
712. The region of the brain most associated with the formation of new declarative memories is the:
cerebellum
amygdala
hypothalamus
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
thalamus
——> hippocampus
5
713. The structure of the brainstem that is responsible for basic autonomic functions such as breathing and circulation is the:
pons
reticular activating system
——> medulla
cerebellum
none of the above
3
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
714. Which of the following is a neurotransmitter that is most directly associated with movement, cognition, and oversupply can cause hallucinations such as those found in schizophrenia?
Acetylcholine
——> Dopamine
GABA
Endophins
Serotonin
2
715. A substance or drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter or blocks the reuptake process is called a(n):
steroid
——> agonist
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
antagonist
polypeptide
opiate
2
716. Which gland controls the activity of all the other glands in the endocrine system?
Pineal
——> Pituitary
Pancreas
Adrenal
Parathyroid
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
2
717. The ____ neurons of the peripheral nervous system carry information from the brain to the muscles and joints.
afferent
——> efferent
autonomic
glial
sensory
2
718. The section of the limbic system most vital to feeding behavior is the:
amygdala
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
hippocampus
——> hypothalamus
suprachiasmatic nucleus
thalamus
3
719. Which of the following is a neurotransmitter that is most directly associated with large muscle function and memory?
——> Acetylcholine
Dopamine
GABA
Serotonin
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Norepinephrine
1
720. The process of encoding refers to:
learning over time
the processing of information previously learned
——> getting information into memory
processing information from our senses
a clear memory of an emotionally significant event
3
721. Saeed easily retains information through the use of acronyms. Which option would be the best way for Saeed to remember that his friend Joe lives on Rainbow Avenue?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
by reciting “I’m visiting Joe; he lives at the Rainbow”
by recalling when he and Joe got stuck in the rain and saw a rainbow
by repeating “Rainbow” aloud over and over again
by renaming the letters in the sentence
——> by recalling “JAR: Joe’s Avenue is Rainbow”
5
722. Which of the following situations is an example of interference?
——> Your friend has a new e-mail address, but when you send her an e-mail, you accidentally use her old e-mail address instead.
Listing the first ten presidents of the United States with no difficulty.
While watching a TV game show, you identified “bald eagle” as the answer when the host asked which among the gray hawk, bald eagle, and rock pigeon is the national bird of the United States.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
An hour after a lecture on Earth’s structure, you wrote down “crust, mantle, inner core, outer core” when the teacher asked you to list the layers of Earth on the board.
Before going to school, you listed “Ten Things to Do” for the day but almost forgot about it until a friend asked if you’d heard the countdown of top 10 hits on the radio.
1
723. Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the “bad guy” used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating a ____________.
mental set
——> confirmation bias
stereotype threat
mindlessness
convergent thinking
2
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
724. The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is referred to as the ________ effect.
——> serial position
misinformation
next-in-line
priming
spacing
1
725. In order to remember information presented in her psychology text, Mallory relates her own life experiences to the new concepts. Mallory’s strategy is an effective memory aid because it makes use of
mnemonic devices
——> semantic encoding
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
automatic processing
rehearsal
overlearning
2
726. Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be __________.
valid
normed
——> reliable
standardized
projective
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
727. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences divides intelligence into ______ independent abilities.
three
five
seven
——> nine
eleven
4
728. Acoustic encoding is the encoding of:
images
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> sounds
meanings
acronyms
movements of body
2
729. The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that ______.
——> one’s language determines the pattern of one’s thinking and view of the world
one’s thinking and view of the world determines the structure of one’s language
we decide which objects belong to a concept according to what is most probable or sensible, given the facts at hand
perception of surface structure precedes deep structure in understanding a sentence
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
perception of concepts precedes understanding of the members the group that comprise the concept
1
730. The three stages of memory information processing are:
input, processing, outputinput, save, ouput
processing, store, retrieve
encode, decode, fincode
encode, processing, retrieval
——> encode, storage, retrieval
5
731. According to Erik Erikson, adolescents face which psychosocial crisis?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Integrity vs. despair
Intimacy vs. isolation
Industry vs. inferiority
——> Identity vs. role confusion
Autonomy vs. shame
4
732. Craig, a 75 year old retired PE teacher, feels his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erikson, Craig has failed to achieve:
——> integrity
intimacy
competence
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
autonomy
trust
1
733. Sander believes that people should always be punished for breaking rules set by authority figures. According to Kohlberg, Sander is operating at the _____ stage of morality.
Postconventional
Conventional
Preoperational
——> Preconventional
Survival
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
734. Which of the following is used to describe any substance, such as a drug, chemical, or virus, that can bring about birth defects?
carcinogen
——> teratogen
mutation
critical period
biohazard
2
735. Adam’s parents tend to be highly controlling. They tend to show little affection or warmth and demand things from Adam. Adam’s parents would be classified as:
permissive
authoritative
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> authoritarian
neglectful
playful
3
736. If her parents encourage young Sophie to ask questions, to use her imagination, and give her the freedom to choose some activities, according to Erikson, they are encouraging:
identity
generativity
integrity
trust
——> initiative
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
5
737. Evan was born 3 days ago. His parents have noticed that whenever they touch his cheek, Evan opens his mouth to suck. Which of the following reflex is Evan exhibiting?
Moro reflex
——> rooting reflex
walking reflex
stepping reflex
palmer reflex
2
738. Infant girls exposed to trucks, cars, and other androgens are more likely to:
have a very “masculine” attitude in adulthood despite their sex.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. informational the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> be “tomboys” during their childhood but grew up to be more “typically female” in adulthood.
be “feminine” during their childhood but grew up to be more “typically male” in adulthood
have a very “feminine” childhood and prefer to play with dolls.
be treated differently by teachers and friends as adolescents.
2
739. Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
A mother grizzly bear teaches her cubs how to hunt for fish.
An infant, left by its caregivers for significant periods of time, develops an indifference to their presence.
A hawk will fly with her young while they are learning to fly.
——> A newborn duckling will “attach” itself to the first moving object is sees, which is usually its mother.
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
A premature infant who is constantly held and massaged by its primary caregiver will grow rapidly.
4
740. The neurotransmitter associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia is ________.
——> serotonin
dopamine
insulin
endorphin
acetylcholine
1
741. The frequent finding that asthmatics often experience shortness of breath concurrently with tremendous anxiety is an example of how emotions and physiological symptoms often occur simultaneously. As such, it supports which of the following theories of emotion?
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
——> Cannon-Bard theory
Schachter and Singer’s
Plutchik’s
James-Lange
Thorndike
1
742. Instinct approaches to motivation have faded because they lacked the goal of ________ of psychology.
——> explanation
change
prediction
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
description
correlation
1
743. BMR stands for ________.
basal management regulation
bowel movement regulation
basel metabolic regulation
——> basal metabolic rate
buttocks management reduction
4
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. best of the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
744. According to cognitive-mediational theory, what is likely to influence an individual’s emotional experience?
the intensity of the situation
——> the interpretation of the environment
the feedback of others
the type of physiological reaction that takes place
the feedback of children
2
745. Which two different terms best describe Schachter and Singer’s theory of emotion?
——> arousal and context
arousal and physiology
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
genetics and nature
nature and nurture
behavior and genetics
1
746. Which option is not a theory of emotion?
James-Lange theory
Cannon-Bard theory
——> Maslow needs theory
Schachter two-factor theory
Cognitive Mediational theory
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
3
747. You overhear a psychologist presenting a lecture to an introductory psychology class. The teacher mentions “purposeful or goal-directed behavior that may vary in intensity from one occasion to another.” You recognize that he is talking about which type of behavior?
emotional
frustrated
——> motivated
unconscious
preconscious
3
748. Early in the twentieth century William McDougall proposed that there were ________ human instincts.
——> 18
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____. check more the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
5
19
7
12
1
the critical factor in deindividuation is _____.

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